Challenges in Aortic Stenosis: Review of Antiplatelet/Anticoagulant Therapy Management with Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR): TAVR with Recent PCI, TAVR in the Patient with Atrial Fibrillation, and TAVR Thrombosis Management
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Purpose of Review
This review aims to describe the current evidence and consensus recommendations around antiplatelet and anticoagulant management in three common clinical scenarios in transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR): (1) recent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) preceding TAVR, (2) atrial fibrillation (AF) management in patients undergoing TAVR, and (3) bioprosthetic valve thrombosis management in TAVR.
Several small clinical trials have evaluated the use of single vs. dual antiplatelet therapy in patients undergoing TAVR, with most recent data favoring single antiplatelet therapy. There are several trials currently enrolling and in follow-up that evaluate the use of anticoagulants in combination with single and dual antiplatelet therapy for patients with AF undergoing TAVR, but as yet, there is no data to support a clear strategy. The use of DAPT after PCI continues to potentially shorten in patients undergoing elective PCI, thus prolonged DAPT may not be necessary post TAVR for the sake of PCI. Bioprosthetic valve thrombosis occurs more commonly than previously thought, but has uncertain clinical significance. In observational studies, antiplatelet therapy has little effect on bioprosthetic valve thrombosis, whereas anticoagulation is effective in both prevention and treatment of thrombosis.
DAPT is currently recommended for 1–6 months for all patients without an indication for oral anticoagulation who undergo TAVR; however, there is a growing amount of evidence for single antiplatelet therapy. In the special situation of patients who have recently undergone PCI, the length of DAPT will depend on stent selection (BMS vs. DES), but may not be significantly prolonged unless the patient experienced an acute coronary syndrome prior to TAVR. There is no clear, optimal antithrombotic strategy for patients with AF who undergo TAVR, but avoidance of triple therapy by using OAC and low-dose ASA seems to be reasonable. OAC, not DAPT, is now known to prevent bioprosthetic valve thrombosis in TAVR and SAVR patients; however, the optimal therapy remains unknown. For patients who develop bioprosthetic valve thrombosis, OAC for 3–6 months, and repeat imaging is recommended to document resolution.
KeywordsTAVR Aortic stenosis Atrial fibrillation PCI Thrombosis
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Matthew W. Sherwood reports honoraria/consulting fees from Janssen, and honoraria from Medtronic.
Amit N. Vora declares no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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