Current Cardiology Reports

, 20:128 | Cite as

Neural Mechanisms Linking Emotion with Cardiovascular Disease

  • Thomas E. KraynakEmail author
  • Anna L. Marsland
  • Peter J. Gianaros
Psychological Aspects of Cardiovascular Diseases (A Steptoe, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Psychological Aspects of Cardiovascular Diseases


Purpose of Review

The present review discusses brain circuits that are engaged by negative emotions and possibly linked to cardiovascular disease risk. It describes recent human brain imaging studies that relate activity in these brain circuits to emotional processes, peripheral physiology, preclinical pathophysiology, as well as clinical outcomes.

Recent Findings

Negative emotions and the regulation of negative emotions reliably engage several brain regions that cross-sectional and longitudinal brain imaging studies have associated with CVD risk markers and outcomes. These brain regions include the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, and insula. Other studies have applied advanced statistical techniques to characterize multivariate patterns of brain activity and brain connectivity that associate with negative emotion and CVD-relevant peripheral physiology.


Brain imaging studies on emotion and cardiovascular disease risk are expanding our understanding of the brain-body bases of psychosocial and behavioral risk for cardiovascular disease.


Amygdala Brain imaging Emotion Emotion regulation Medial prefrontal cortex Stress 


Funding information

This work was supported by National Institutes of Health grants T32 HL007560 and R01 HL089850.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Thomas E. Kraynak, Anna L. Marsland, and Peter J. Gianaros declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    GBD. Causes of Death Collaborators (2017) Global, regional, and national age-sex specific mortality for 264 causes of death, 1980-2016: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2016. Lancet. 2016;390:1151–210.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Everson-Rose SA, Lewis TT. Psychosocial factors and cardiovascular diseases. Annu Rev Public Health. 2005;26:469–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Matthews KA. Matters of the heart advancing psychological perspectives on cardiovascular diseases. Perspect Psychol Sci. 2013;8:676–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    DeSteno D, Gross JJ, Kubzansky L. Affective science and health: the importance of emotion and emotion regulation. Health Psychol. 2013;32:474–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Musselman DL, Evans DL, Nemeroff CB. The relationship of depression to cardiovascular disease: epidemiology, biology, and treatment. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998;55:580–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rozanski A, Blumenthal JA, Kaplan J. Impact of psychological factors on the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and implications for therapy. Circulation. 1999;99:2192–217.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gan Y, Gong Y, Tong X, Sun H, Cong Y, Dong X, et al. Depression and the risk of coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. BMC Psychiatry. 2014;14:371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Celano CM, Millstein RA, Bedoya CA, Healy BC, Roest AM, Huffman JC. Association between anxiety and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis. Am Heart J. 2015;170:1105–15.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chida Y, Steptoe A. The association of anger and hostility with future coronary heart disease: a meta-analytic review of prospective evidence. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;53:936–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Edmondson D, Kronish IM, Shaffer JA, Falzon L, Burg MM. Posttraumatic stress disorder and risk for coronary heart disease: a meta-analytic review. Am Heart J. 2013;166:806–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jiang W. Emotional triggering of cardiac dysfunction: the present and future. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2015;17:91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kivimäki M, Batty GD, Hamer M, Ferrie JE, Vahtera J, Virtanen M, et al. Using additional information on working hours to predict coronary heart disease: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2011;154:457–63.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rosengren A, Hawken S, Ounpuu S, et al. Association of psychosocial risk factors with risk of acute myocardial infarction in 11119 cases and 13648 controls from 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study. Lancet. 2004;364:953–62.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cohen S, Pressman SD. Positive affect and health positive affect and health. Curr Dir Psychol Sci. 2006;15:122–5.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Boehm JK, Kubzansky LD. The heart’s content: the association between positive psychological well-being and cardiovascular health. Psychol Bull. 2012;138:655–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Haensel A, Mills PJ, Nelesen RA, Ziegler MG, Dimsdale JE. The relationship between heart rate variability and inflammatory markers in cardiovascular diseases. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2008;33:1305–12.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Libby P, Ridker PM, Maseri A. Inflammation and atherosclerosis. Circulation. 2002;105:1135–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Girod JP, Brotman DJ. Does altered glucocorticoid homeostasis increase cardiovascular risk? Cardiovasc Res. 2004;64:217–26.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wirtz PH, von KR. Psychological stress, inflammation, and coronary heart disease. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2017;19:111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Thayer JF, Yamamoto SS, Brosschot JF. The relationship of autonomic imbalance, heart rate variability and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Int J Cardiol. 2010;141:122–31.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cohen S, Gianaros PJ, Manuck SB. A stage model of stress and disease. Perspect Psychol Sci. 2016;11:456–63.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Krantz DS, Manuck SB. Acute psychophysiologic reactivity and risk of cardiovascular disease: a review and methodologic critique. Psychol Bull. 1984;96:435–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jennings JR, Kamarck TW, Everson-Rose SA, Kaplan GA, Manuck SB, Salonen JT. Exaggerated blood pressure responses during mental stress are prospectively related to enhanced carotid atherosclerosis in middle-aged Finnish men. Circulation. 2004;110:2198–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    McEwen BS, Gianaros PJ. Central role of the brain in stress and adaptation: links to socioeconomic status, health, and disease: central links between stress and SES. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010;1186:190–222.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gianaros PJ, Wager TD. Brain-body pathways linking psychological stress and physical health. Curr Dir Psychol Sci. 2015;24:313–21.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lindquist KA, Wager TD, Kober H, Bliss-Moreau E, Barrett LF. The brain basis of emotion: a meta-analytic review. Behav Brain Sci. 2012;35:121–43.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wager TD, Kang J, Johnson TD, Nichols TE, Satpute AB, Barrett LF. A Bayesian model of category-specific emotional brain responses. PLoS Comput Biol. 2015;11:e1004066.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    LeDoux J. The emotional brain, fear, and the amygdala. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2003;23:727–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Phillips RG, LeDoux JE. Differential contribution of amygdala and hippocampus to cued and contextual fear conditioning. Behav Neurosci. 1992;106:274–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dampney RA. Functional organization of central pathways regulating the cardiovascular system. Physiol Rev. 1994;74:323–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Price JL. Comparative aspects of amygdala connectivity. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003;985:50–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Amaral DG, Price JL. Amygdalo-cortical projections in the monkey (Macaca fascicularis). J Comp Neurol. 1984;230:465–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Goldstein LE, Rasmusson AM, Bunney BS, Roth RH. Role of the amygdala in the coordination of behavioral, neuroendocrine, and prefrontal cortical monoamine responses to psychological stress in the rat. J Neurosci. 1996;16:4787–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Davis M, Whalen PJ. The amygdala: vigilance and emotion. Mol Psychiatry. 2001;6:13–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lindquist KA, Satpute AB, Wager TD, Weber J, Barrett LF. The brain basis of positive and negative affect: evidence from a meta-analysis of the human neuroimaging literature. Cereb Cortex. 2016;26:1910–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wager TD, Waugh CE, Lindquist M, Noll DC, Fredrickson BL, Taylor SF. Brain mediators of cardiovascular responses to social threat: part I: reciprocal dorsal and ventral sub-regions of the medial prefrontal cortex and heart-rate reactivity. NeuroImage. 2009;47:821–35.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wager TD, van Ast VA, Hughes BL, Davidson ML, Lindquist MA, Ochsner KN. Brain mediators of cardiovascular responses to social threat, part II: prefrontal-subcortical pathways and relationship with anxiety. NeuroImage. 2009;47:836–51.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hamilton JP, Etkin A, Furman DJ, Lemus MG, Johnson RF, Gotlib IH. Functional neuroimaging of major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis and new integration of baseline activation and neural response data. AJP. 2012;169:693–703.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Critchley HD, Harrison NA. Visceral influences on brain and behavior. Neuron. 2013;77:624–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Critchley HD. Neural mechanisms of autonomic, affective, and cognitive integration. J Comp Neurol. 2005;493:154–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Etkin A, Egner T, Kalisch R. Emotional processing in anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex. Trends Cogn Sci (Regul Ed). 2011;15:85–93.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ridderinkhof KR, Ullsperger M, Crone EA, Nieuwenhuis S. The role of the medial frontal cortex in cognitive control. Science. 2004;306:443–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Botvinick MM, Cohen JD, Carter CS. Conflict monitoring and anterior cingulate cortex: an update. Trends Cogn Sci. 2004;8:539–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Roy M, Shohamy D, Wager TD. Ventromedial prefrontal-subcortical systems and the generation of affective meaning. Trends Cogn Sci. 2012;16:147–56.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Buhle JT, Silvers JA, Wager TD, Lopez R, Onyemekwu C, Kober H, et al. Cognitive reappraisal of emotion: a meta-analysis of human neuroimaging studies. Cereb Cortex. 2013;24:2981–90.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gotlib IH, Joormann J. Cognition and depression: current status and future directions. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2010;6:285–312.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Appleton AA, Loucks EB, Buka SL, Kubzansky LD. Divergent associations of antecedent- and response-focused emotion regulation strategies with midlife cardiovascular disease risk. Ann Behav Med. 2014;48:246–55.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Dum RP, Levinthal DJ, Strick PL. Motor, cognitive, and affective areas of the cerebral cortex influence the adrenal medulla. PNAS. 2016;113:9922–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Parvizi J, Rangarajan V, Shirer WR, Desai N, Greicius MD. The will to persevere induced by electrical stimulation of the human cingulate gyrus. Neuron. 2013;80:1359–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gianaros PJ, Derbtshire SWG, May JC, Siegle GJ, Gamalo MA, Jennings JR. Anterior cingulate activity correlates with blood pressure during stress. Psychophysiology. 2005;42:627–35.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Verberne AJ. Medullary sympathoexcitatory neurons are inhibited by activation of the medial prefrontal cortex in the rat. Am J Phys Regul Integr Comp Phys. 1996;270:R713–9.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Resstel LBM, Fernandes KBP, Corrêa FMA. Medial prefrontal cortex modulation of the baroreflex parasympathetic component in the rat. Brain Res. 2004;1015:136–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Critchley HD, Mathias CJ, Josephs O, O’Doherty J, Zanini S, Dewar B-K, et al. Human cingulate cortex and autonomic control: converging neuroimaging and clinical evidence. Brain. 2003;126:2139–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Craig AD. How do you feel — now? The anterior insula and human awareness. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2009;10:59–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Harrison NA, Gray MA, Gianaros PJ, Critchley HD. The embodiment of emotional feelings in the brain. J Neurosci. 2010;30:12878–84.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Khalsa SS, Adolphs R, Cameron OG, Critchley HD, Davenport PW, Feinstein JS, et al. Interoception and mental health: a roadmap. Biol Psychiatry: Cogn NeurosciNeuroimaging. 2018;3:501–13.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Craig AD. Interoception: the sense of the physiological condition of the body. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2003;13:500–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Damasio A, Carvalho GB. The nature of feelings: evolutionary and neurobiological origins. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2013;14:143–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    •• Oppenheimer S, Cechetto D. The insular cortex and the regulation of cardiac function. Compr Physiol. 2016;6:1081–133. This comprehensive review provides extensive detail on animal and human brain imaging literatures linking the insula to cardiac function in health and disease.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Nagai M, Hoshide S, Kario K. The insular cortex and cardiovascular system: a new insight into the brain-heart axis. J Am Soc Hypertens. 2010;4:174–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Colivicchi F, Bassi A, Santini M, Caltagirone C. Cardiac autonomic derangement and arrhythmias in right-sided stroke with insular involvement. Stroke. 2004;35:2094–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Meyer S, Strittmatter M, Fischer C, Georg T, Schmitz B. Lateralization in autonomic dysfunction in ischemic stroke involving the insular cortex. Neuroreport. 2004;15:357–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Oppenheimer SM, Wilson JX, Guiraudon C, Cechetto DF. Insular cortex stimulation produces lethal cardiac arrhythmias: a mechanism of sudden death? Brain Res. 1991;550:115–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ueyama T. Emotional stress-induced Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy: animal model and molecular mechanism. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004;1018:437–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kleckner IR, Zhang J, Touroutoglou A, Chanes L, Xia C, Simmons WK, et al. Evidence for a large-scale brain system supporting allostasis and interoception in humans. Nature Human Behaviour. 2017;1:0069.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ginty AT, Kraynak TE, Fisher JP, Gianaros PJ. Cardiovascular and autonomic reactivity to psychological stress: neurophysiological substrates and links to cardiovascular disease. Auton Neurosci. 2017;207:2–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Gianaros PJ, Sheu LK. A review of neuroimaging studies of stressor-evoked blood pressure reactivity: emerging evidence for a brain-body pathway to coronary heart disease risk. NeuroImage. 2009;47:922–36.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hermans EJ, Marle HJF, van Ossewaarde L, et al. Stress-related noradrenergic activity prompts large-scale neural network reconfiguration. Science. 2011;334:1151–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Bush G, Shin LM. The multi-source interference task: an fMRI task that reliably activates the cingulo-frontal-parietal cognitive/attention network. Nat Protocols. 2006;1:308–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Eisenberger NI, Taylor SE, Gable SL, Hilmert CJ, Lieberman MD. Neural pathways link social support to attenuated neuroendocrine stress responses. NeuroImage. 2007;35:1601–12.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Ginty AT, Gianaros PJ, Derbyshire SWG, Phillips AC, Carroll D. Blunted cardiac stress reactivity relates to neural hypoactivation. Psychophysiology. 2013;50:219–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Gianaros PJ, Van der Veen FM, Jennings JR. Regional cerebral blood flow correlates with heart period and high-frequency heart period variability during working-memory tasks: implications for the cortical and subcortical regulation of cardiac autonomic activity. Psychophysiology. 2004;41:521–30.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Dalton KM, Kalin NH, Grist TM, Davidson RJ. Neural-cardiac coupling in threat-evoked anxiety. J Cogn Neurosci. 2005;17:969–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Gianaros PJ, Onyewuenyi IC, Sheu LK, Christie IC, Critchley HD. Brain systems for baroreflex suppression during stress in humans. Hum Brain Mapp. 2012;33:1700–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Critchley HD, Corfield DR, Chandler MP, Mathias CJ, Dolan RJ. Cerebral correlates of autonomic cardiovascular arousal: a functional neuroimaging investigation in humans. J Physiol. 2000;523:259–70.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Beissner F, Meissner K, Bär K-J, Napadow V. The autonomic brain: an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis for central processing of autonomic function. J Neurosci. 2013;33:10503–11.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Ruiz Vargas E, Sörös P, Shoemaker JK, Hachinski V. Human cerebral circuitry related to cardiac control: a neuroimaging meta-analysis. Ann Neurol. 2016;79:709–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Swartz JR, Prather AA, Hariri AR. Threat-related amygdala activity is associated with peripheral CRP concentrations in men but not women. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2017;78:93–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Libby P, Ridker PM. Inflammation and atherosclerosis: role of C-reactive protein in risk assessment. Am J Med. 2004;116:9–16.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Lane RD, McRae K, Reiman EM, Chen K, Ahern GL, Thayer JF. Neural correlates of heart rate variability during emotion. NeuroImage. 2009;44:213–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Tsuji H, Larson MG, Venditti FJ, Manders ES, Evans JC, Feldman CL, et al. Impact of reduced heart rate variability on risk for cardiac events. The Framingham heart study. Circulation. 1996;94:2850–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Gianaros PJ, Hariri AR, Sheu LK, Muldoon MF, Sutton-Tyrrell K, Manuck SB. Preclinical atherosclerosis Covaries with individual differences in reactivity and functional connectivity of the amygdala. Biol Psychiatry. 2009;65:943–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Gianaros PJ, Marsland AL, Kuan DC-H, Schirda BL, Jennings JR, Sheu LK, et al. An inflammatory pathway links atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk to neural activity evoked by the cognitive regulation of emotion. Biol Psychiatry. 2014;75:738–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    •• Tawakol A, Ishai A, Takx RA, et al. Relation between resting amygdalar activity and cardiovascular events: a longitudinal and cohort study. Lancet. 2017;389:834–45. This brain imaging study demonstrated that resting metabolism in the amygdala significantly predicted future CVD events, independent of traditional CVD risk factors, in a large sample. This study also identified arterial inflammation and bone marrow activity as potential physiological mediators between brain activity and CVD events.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Hagmann P, Cammoun L, Gigandet X, Meuli R, Honey CJ, Wedeen VJ, et al. Mapping the structural Core of human cerebral cortex. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e159.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Yeo BTT, Krienen FM, Sepulcre J, Sabuncu MR, Lashkari D, Hollinshead M, et al. The organization of the human cerebral cortex estimated by intrinsic functional connectivity. J Neurophysiol. 2011;106:1125–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Hutchison RM, Womelsdorf T, Allen EA, Bandettini PA, Calhoun VD, Corbetta M, et al. Dynamic functional connectivity: promise, issues, and interpretations. NeuroImage. 2013;80:360–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Phillips ML, Drevets WC, Rauch SL, Lane R. Neurobiology of emotion perception I: the neural basis of normal emotion perception. Biol Psychiatry. 2003;54:504–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Myers B. Corticolimbic regulation of cardiovascular responses to stress. Physiol Behav. 2017;172:49–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Benarroch EE. The central autonomic network: functional organization, dysfunction, and perspective. Mayo Clin Proc. 1993;68:988–1001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Gianaros PJ, Sheu LK, Matthews KA, Jennings JR, Manuck SB, Hariri AR. Individual differences in stressor-evoked blood pressure reactivity vary with activation, volume, and functional connectivity of the amygdala. J Neurosci. 2008;28:990–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Muscatell KA, Dedovic K, Slavich GM, Jarcho MR, Breen EC, Bower JE, et al. Greater amygdala activity and dorsomedial prefrontal-amygdala coupling are associated with enhanced inflammatory responses to stress. Brain Behav Immun. 2015;43:46–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Woo C-W, Chang LJ, Lindquist MA, Wager TD. Building better biomarkers: brain models in translational neuroimaging. Nat Neurosci. 2017;20:365–77.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Chang LJ, Gianaros PJ, Manuck SB, Krishnan A, Wager TD. A sensitive and specific neural signature for picture-induced negative affect. PLoS Biol. 2015;13:e1002180.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    • Eisenbarth H, Chang LJ, Wager TD. Multivariate brain prediction of heart rate and skin conductance responses to social threat. J Neurosci. 2016;36:11987–98. This brain imaging study used machine learning techniques to generate a multivariate brain signature, comprising regions such as the medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and brainstem, that predicted peripheral autonomic (heart rate, skin conductance) responses during a stress task. PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    • Gianaros PJ, Sheu LK, Uyar F, Koushik J, Jennings JR, Wager TD, et al. A brain phenotype for stressor-evoked blood pressure reactivity. J Am Heart Assoc. 2017;6:e006053. Using a large, representative community sample, this brain imaging study used machine learning techniques to generate a multivariate brain signature, comprising regions such as the medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and insula, that predicted individual differences in stressor-evoked blood pressure reactivity, a potential biobehavioral risk factor for CVD. PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Rozanski A. Behavioral cardiology: current advances and future directions. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;64:100–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Pauli WM, O’Reilly RC, Yarkoni T, Wager TD. Regional specialization within the human striatum for diverse psychological functions. PNAS. 2016;113:1907–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Russo SJ, Nestler EJ. The brain reward circuitry in mood disorders. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2013;14:609–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Dallman MF. Stress-induced obesity and the emotional nervous system. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2010;21:159–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kraynak TE, Marsland AL, Wager TD, Gianaros PJ. Functional neuroanatomy of peripheral inflammatory physiology: a meta-analysis of human neuroimaging studies. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2018;94:76–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Buckner RL, Krienen FM, Yeo BTT. Opportunities and limitations of intrinsic functional connectivity MRI. Nat Neurosci. 2013;16:832–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Kim MJ, Gee DG, Loucks RA, Davis FC, Whalen PJ. Anxiety dissociates dorsal and ventral medial prefrontal cortex functional connectivity with the amygdala at rest. Cereb Cortex. 2011;21:1667–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Marsland AL, Kuan DC-H, Sheu LK, Krajina K, Kraynak TE, Manuck SB, et al. Systemic inflammation and resting state connectivity of the default mode network. Brain Behav Immun. 2017;62:162–70.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Jennings JR, Sheu LK, Kuan DC-H, Manuck SB, Gianaros PJ. Resting state connectivity of the medial prefrontal cortex covaries with individual differences in high-frequency heart rate variability. Psychophysiology. 2016;53:444–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Sheu LK, Jennings JR, Gianaros PJ. Test–retest reliability of an fMRI paradigm for studies of cardiovascular reactivity. Psychophysiology. 2012;49:873–84.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    • Bremner JD, Campanella C, Khan Z, et al. Brain correlates of mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia. Psychosom Med. 2018;80:515–25. This recent brain imaging study is one of the first to examine stressor-evoked brain activity and myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease, finding that patients with stress-induced ischemia exhibited increased activity in regions including the anterior cingulate cortex.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Edmondson D, Richardson S, Falzon L, Davidson KW, Mills MA, Neria Y. Posttraumatic stress disorder prevalence and risk of recurrence in acute coronary syndrome patients: a meta-analytic review. PLoS One. 2012;7:e38915.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Dutcher JM, Creswell JD. Behavioral interventions in health neuroscience. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2018;1428:51–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas E. Kraynak
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Anna L. Marsland
    • 1
  • Peter J. Gianaros
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Center for the Neural Basis of CognitionPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations