Effect of Alcohol Consumption on Cardiovascular Health
Purpose of Review
This review aims to discuss the effect of alcohol consumption on various cardiovascular (CV) diseases and CV mortality.
Alcohol intake has consistently shown a J- or U-shaped relationship with several cardiovascular diseases. Light to moderate alcohol intake has been associated with lower risk of coronary artery disease, heart failure (HF), as well as CV mortality. On the other hand, heavy consumption has been associated with deleterious CV outcomes including increased mortality. However, the evidence is based from observational and population-based studies where risk of confounding cannot be excluded even after meticulous methodological approaches. This is compounded by conflicting data such as higher risk of certain CV diseases like HF in former drinkers compared to abstainers. Further, Mendelian randomization studies using genetic polymorphisms in enzymes have recently questioned the beneficial association of low-moderate drinking with CV system.
There has been substantial and consistent evidence that light to moderate alcohol consumption have beneficial effect on overall cardiovascular profile and mortality. However, there are considerable limitations in the reported literature to determine a strong causality of a protective effect of moderate alcohol consumption by itself. Further robust studies or possibly a well-structured randomized controlled could bring an end to this debate.
KeywordsAlcohol Coronary artery disease Heart failure Cardiovascular mortality Cardio protection Cardiomyopathy
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Abhishek Sharma, Sunny Goel, and Aakash Garg declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: •• Of major importance
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