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Current Cardiology Reports

, 16:439 | Cite as

Incremental Value of 3-D Transesophageal Echocardiographic Imaging of the Mitral Valve

  • Sonia Jain
  • Joseph F. MaloufEmail author
Valvular Heart Disease (V Nkomo, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Valvular Heart Disease

Abstract

Transesophageal echocardiography provides excellent visualization of the posteriorly located mitral valve. Over the last decade, 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3D TEE) has emerged as an exciting imaging modality, particularly of the mitral valve. The current generation matrix array technology allows the operator to perform 2D and 3D imaging with a single transducer. 3D TEE affords the unique ability to view the mitral valve and its surrounding structures “en face” in real time (RT), and provide contextual anatomical guidance during surgical and transcatheter interventions. Additionally, offline quantification has made significant contributions to our mechanistic understanding of the normal and diseased mitral valve, and alterations induced by therapeutic intervention such as surgical repair. This review will address recent advances in the incremental role of 3D TEE in mitral valve imaging.

Keywords

Echocardiography Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography Real-time 3D TEE Interventional echocardiography Mitral valve Mitral valve disease Mitral regurgitation Mitral stenosis Mitral valve repair Valvular heart disease Valvuloplasty 

Abbreviations

2D

2-dimensional

3D

3-dimensional

DMVD

Degenerative mitral valve disease

Echo

Echocardiography

FMR

Functional mitral regurgitation

IMR

Ischemic mitral regurgitation

MR

Mitral regurgitation

MS

Mitral stenosis

MV

Mitral valve

MVP

Mitral valve prolapse

MAIVF

Mitral-aortic inter valvular fibrosa

PVR

Paravalvular regurgitation

TEE

Transesophageal echocardiography

RT3D TEE

Real time 3-dimensional transesophageal

Notes

Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

Sonia Jain declares that she has no conflict of interest. Joseph F. Malouf declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

Video 1

Live 3D Zoom three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography ‘surgeons view’ from the left atrial perspective of the mitral valve, demonstrating a P2 prolapse with a ruptured chord. © Mayo Foundation (MPG 683 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Internal MedicineMayo ClinicRochesterUSA

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