Current Cardiology Reports

, 16:439 | Cite as

Incremental Value of 3-D Transesophageal Echocardiographic Imaging of the Mitral Valve

  • Sonia Jain
  • Joseph F. MaloufEmail author
Valvular Heart Disease (V Nkomo, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Valvular Heart Disease


Transesophageal echocardiography provides excellent visualization of the posteriorly located mitral valve. Over the last decade, 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3D TEE) has emerged as an exciting imaging modality, particularly of the mitral valve. The current generation matrix array technology allows the operator to perform 2D and 3D imaging with a single transducer. 3D TEE affords the unique ability to view the mitral valve and its surrounding structures “en face” in real time (RT), and provide contextual anatomical guidance during surgical and transcatheter interventions. Additionally, offline quantification has made significant contributions to our mechanistic understanding of the normal and diseased mitral valve, and alterations induced by therapeutic intervention such as surgical repair. This review will address recent advances in the incremental role of 3D TEE in mitral valve imaging.


Echocardiography Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography Real-time 3D TEE Interventional echocardiography Mitral valve Mitral valve disease Mitral regurgitation Mitral stenosis Mitral valve repair Valvular heart disease Valvuloplasty 







Degenerative mitral valve disease




Functional mitral regurgitation


Ischemic mitral regurgitation


Mitral regurgitation


Mitral stenosis


Mitral valve


Mitral valve prolapse


Mitral-aortic inter valvular fibrosa


Paravalvular regurgitation


Transesophageal echocardiography


Real time 3-dimensional transesophageal


Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

Sonia Jain declares that she has no conflict of interest. Joseph F. Malouf declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

Video 1

Live 3D Zoom three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography ‘surgeons view’ from the left atrial perspective of the mitral valve, demonstrating a P2 prolapse with a ruptured chord. © Mayo Foundation (MPG 683 kb)


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Internal MedicineMayo ClinicRochesterUSA

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