Current Bladder Dysfunction Reports

, Volume 13, Issue 4, pp 234–237 | Cite as

Challenges of Training General Surgery Residents to Do Urology in the Developing World

  • Edward L. Mugalo
  • Charles R. Powell
Neurogenic Bladder (C Powell, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Neurogenic Bladder


Purpose of Review

The purpose this manuscript is to describe the work of one program in Kenya, East Africa, to train general surgery residents in urology to make available the much needed service to the underserved rural population.

Recent Findings

People in developing countries continue to face the challenge of accessing surgical care with a ratio of 1 surgeon to 20,000 people. This is due, in part, to the inadequate number of trained surgeons. The availability of specialized surgical care such as urology is even more unlikely due to fewer numbers of specialists in urology. Such disciplines take many years of training before a person qualifies as a specialist. This requires highly motivated and suitable candidates who are willing to spend time in training and acquiring skills as well as proper infrastructure for training. There is an effort to train general surgical residents in enhanced skills to make available urology services to the wider population. This involves equipping them with skills in general urology, basic skills in handling endoscopic equipment, and basic endo-urology procedures such as diagnostic cystoscopy with or without biopsy and direct vision urethrotomy (DVU). The residents are also exposed to visiting faculty through international collaborations, surgical camps, and workshops to enhance their skills and knowledge.


Equipping general surgical residents with urology skills will greatly reduce the shortage of these services to the people of developing countries.


Urology training General surgical residents Surgical skills Specialized surgical care Skills transfer International collaboration 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Dr. Edward Mugalo and Dr. Charles Powell declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of MedicineMoi UniversityEldoretKenya
  2. 2.Indiana University School of Medicine Department of UrologyIndianapolisUSA

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