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Upregulated LOX-1 Receptor: Key Player of the Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis

  • Sanjiv SinghEmail author
  • Avtar Singh Gautam
Evidence-Based Medicine (L. Roever, Section Editor)
  • 112 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Evidence Based Medicine

Abstract

Purpose of Review

In any case, in proatherogenic conditions, LOX-1 is uniquely upregulated in vascular cells and mediates the entire atherogenic process from LDL oxidation to plague arrangement. As evidence supporting the crucial role of LOX-1 in atherogenesis keeps accumulating, there is developing an enthusiasm for LOX-1 as a potential remedial target.

Recent Findings

Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is the major receptor for binding and uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in endothelial cells. Following internalization of oxLDL, LOX-1 starts a vicious cycle from activation of proinflammatory signaling pathways, subsequently advancing an expanded responsive oxygen species arrangement and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. In healthy arteries, expression of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is practically undetectable.

Summary

This review portrays existing evidence supporting the role of LOX-1 in mediating of proatherosclerotic impacts of oxLDL which result in endothelial dysfunction, proinflammatory recruitment of monocytes into the arterial intima, arrangement of foam cells, endothelial cell dysfunction and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, and platelet enactment, angiogenesis just as in plaque development. Likewise, abridges LOX-1 modulatory compounds and in vivo and in vitro examinations toward the improvement of small molecules and biologics that could be of therapeutic use.

Keywords

LOX-1 oxLDL Atherogenesis Plaque development Proatherosclerotic 

Abbreviations

LOX-1

Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1

HUVECs

Human umbilical vascular endothelial cells

NO

Nitric oxide

NADPH

Nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

MPO

Myeloperoxidase

eNOS

Endothelial nitric oxide synthase

oxLDL

Oxidized low-density lipoprotein

ApoE−/−

Apolipoprotein E deficient

HCAECs

Human coronary artery endothelial cells

LDLr

Low-density lipoprotein receptor

IFN-γ

Interferon-γ

MCP-1

Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1

PPAR-γ

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

COX-2

Cyclooxygenase-2

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

MiR

MicroRNA

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

GHS R1a

Ghrelin receptor-1

HEK

Human embryonic kidney cells

PAFAH

Platelet-activating factor acetlyhydrolase

cAMP

Cyclic adenosine mono-phosphate

NFKB

Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells

MMP-9

Matrix metallopeptidase- 9

IL

Interleukin

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor- α

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

CAT

Catalase

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are thankful to the Department of Pharmaceuticals, Ministry of Chemical and Fertilizers, Govt. of India for providing necessary support to carry out this study.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Sanjiv Singh, Avtar Singh Gautam declare no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology and ToxicologyNational Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Export Promotions Industrial Park (EPIP), Industrial AreaBiharIndia

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