Hot Topic: Precision Medicine for Asthma—Has the Time Come?
Purpose of Review
Asthma is a common inflammatory airway disease, which affects more than 300 million people worldwide. Although conventional drugs are effective for most of the patients with mild-to-moderate asthma, they are less effective for patients with difficult-to-treat or severe asthma. Identification of asthma endotypes and biomarkers will lead to more precise approaches to treat asthma.
Asthma subphenotypes and endotypes have been described based on clinical variables and sputum granulocytes. A recent asthma endotype study has been summarized based on the combination of T2 (FeNO) and non-T2 (IL-6) biomarkers. Discovery of potential biomarkers for asthma has been discussed in the context of omics approaches. Current biologic drugs for asthma have been summarized, and the future direction of precise treatment of asthma has been suggested.
This review provides a concise overview of the current state of subphenotypes, endotypes, biomarkers, omics approaches, and biologic drugs in asthma.
KeywordsAsthma Biomarker Endotype Omics Precision medicine Subphenotype
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The author declares that he has no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by the author.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
- 1.Global Initiative for Asthma. Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention (GINA). [accessed July 1, 2019; updated 2019]. Available at https://ginasthma.org
- 6.•• Li X, Hastie AT, Peters MC, et al. Investigation of serum IL-6 and IL6R levels as biomarkers for asthma severity and asthma exacerbations. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019;199:A2687 This is a study showing asthma endotypes based on T2 (FeNO or blood eosinophils) and non-T2 (IL-6) biomarkers. Google Scholar