Hot Topic: Precision Medicine for Asthma—Has the Time Come?

  • Xingnan LiEmail author
Asthma (V Ortega, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Asthma


Purpose of Review

Asthma is a common inflammatory airway disease, which affects more than 300 million people worldwide. Although conventional drugs are effective for most of the patients with mild-to-moderate asthma, they are less effective for patients with difficult-to-treat or severe asthma. Identification of asthma endotypes and biomarkers will lead to more precise approaches to treat asthma.

Recent Findings

Asthma subphenotypes and endotypes have been described based on clinical variables and sputum granulocytes. A recent asthma endotype study has been summarized based on the combination of T2 (FeNO) and non-T2 (IL-6) biomarkers. Discovery of potential biomarkers for asthma has been discussed in the context of omics approaches. Current biologic drugs for asthma have been summarized, and the future direction of precise treatment of asthma has been suggested.


This review provides a concise overview of the current state of subphenotypes, endotypes, biomarkers, omics approaches, and biologic drugs in asthma.


Asthma Biomarker Endotype Omics Precision medicine Subphenotype 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The author declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by the author.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Genetics, Genomics and Precision Medicine, Department of MedicineUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA

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