Genetic and Environmental Contributors for Celiac Disease

  • Gloria SerenaEmail author
  • Rosiane Lima
  • Alessio Fasano
Autoimmunity (TK Tarrant, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Autoimmunity


Purpose of Review

Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by gluten. The purpose of this review is to examine the major genetic and environmental factors that contribute to CD pathogenesis.

Recent Findings

We reviewed the current state of knowledge on the genetic and environmental components that play a role in CD onset. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis has highlighted several genes other than HLA involved in CD. Recent studies have shown that HLA haplotype influences the microbiome composition in infants and that dysbiosis in the intestinal microflora, in turn, contributes to loss of tolerance to gluten. Recently, observational studies have discussed the hypothesis stating that breast-feeding had a protective role against CD onset.


CD etiology is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. A better understanding of these components would deepen our knowledge on the mechanisms that lead to loss of tolerance and could help in developing a more “personalized medicine.”


Celiac disease HLA Microbiome Genetic Environment Gluten 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest relevant to this manuscript.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Celiac Research, Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center and Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology and NutritionMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA

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