Vitamin D and Otitis Media

  • Rebecca E. WalkerEmail author
  • Jim Bartley
  • Carlos A. CamargoJr
  • Edwin A. Mitchell
Otitis (DP Skoner, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Otitis


Purpose of Review

To examine the relationship between vitamin D and otitis media.

Recent Findings

Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with several respiratory diseases, including otitis media. Vitamin D supplementation may reduce the risk of otitis media. This relationship may be explained by vitamin D supporting the immune system by upregulating antimicrobial peptides which are effective against otopathogens and biofilm formation, supporting a less inflammatory immune response, or promoting beneficial commensal bacteria.


This review will explore risk factors of both otitis media and vitamin D deficiency, the evidence of vitamin D being beneficial for various forms of otitis media, and possible mechanisms of action.


Otitis media Vitamin D Viral infections Respiratory microbiota Antimicrobial peptides Cytokines Biofilms Upper respiratory tract infections 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights

All reported studies/experiments with human or animal subjects performed by the authors have been previously published and complied with all applicable ethical standards (including the Helsinki declaration and its amendments, institutional/national research committee standards, and international/national/institutional guidelines).

Informed Consent

No information or photographs identifying particular individuals are included in this article.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rebecca E. Walker
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jim Bartley
    • 2
  • Carlos A. CamargoJr
    • 3
  • Edwin A. Mitchell
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Paediatrics: Child and Youth HealthThe University of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand
  2. 2.Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck SurgeryCounties-Manukau District Health BoardAucklandNew Zealand
  3. 3.Department of Emergency Medicine and Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Immunology, Department of MedicineMassachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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