Severe Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reactions: Presentation, Risk Factors, and Management
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Purpose of Study
Immune-mediated adverse drug reactions occur commonly in clinical practice and include mild, self-limited cutaneous eruptions, IgE-mediated hypersensitivity, and severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCAR). SCARs represent an uncommon but potentially life-threatening form of delayed T cell-mediated reaction. The spectrum of illness ranges from acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) to drug reaction with eosinophilia with systemic symptoms (DRESS), to the most severe form of illness, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN).
There is emerging literature on the efficacy of cyclosporine in decreasing mortality in SJS/TEN.
The purpose of our review is to discuss the typical presentations of these conditions, with a special focus on identifying the culprit medication. We review risk factors for developing SCAR, including HLA alleles strongly associated with drug hypersensitivity. We conclude by discussing current strategies for the management of these conditions.
KeywordsSevere cutaneous adverse drug reaction (SCAR) Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) HLA-associated drug hypersensitivity
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest relevant to this manuscript.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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