In this study, we quantified the spatiotemporal burden of mortality attributable to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5, which is defined as a mass of particles with an aerodynamic dry diameter of ≤ 2.5 μm) in Taiwan during 2008–2015. Hourly concentrations of PM2.5 were obtained from the Taiwan Air Quality Monitoring Network. According to geographical and climatic characteristics, the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration has divided Taiwan into seven air quality regions (AQRs): the North (four districts), Chu-Miao (two districts), Central (three districts), Yun-Chia-Nan (three districts), Kao-Ping (two districts), Yilan (one district), and Hua-Tung (two districts) regions. Demographic information and mortality data were acquired from the Department of Household Registration and National Death Registry of Taiwan, respectively. The World Health Organization’s (WHO) AirQ+ software was used to estimate the mortality attributable to exposure to PM2.5 for specific causes of deaths, specifically from ischemic heart disease (IHD), cerebrovascular disease (stroke), lung cancer (LC), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The results indicated that nationally, the annual mean concentration of PM2.5 decreased from 2008 (30.75 μg m−3) to 2015 (20.07 μg m−3). Moreover, the population-attributable fraction (PAF) of cause-specific mortality due to PM2.5 exposure for IHD, stroke, LC, and COPD decreased from 21.72%, 30.31%, 15.97%, and 13.04%, respectively, in 2008 to 17.40%, 18.18%, 10.77%, and 9.09%, respectively, in 2015. Geographic variation was observed in the PM2.5 concentration and PAF. High PM2.5 levels and PAF of mortality due to PM2.5 were observed in southwestern and central Taiwan. Moreover, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease (IHD and stroke) accounted for the majority of the premature deaths related to PM2.5. Stroke was the largest contributor in PM2.5-related premature mortality; however, IHD instead of stroke became the largest contributor in the Yilan AQR in 2010, 2012, and 2014–2015 and in the Hua-Tung AQR in 2012–2015 with relatively low PM2.5 levels (less than 19 μg m−3). In Taiwan, ambient PM2.5 contributed substantially to the burden of disease. Our results could aid authorities in determining the effectiveness of current air pollution control strategies and plans.
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The authors received funding support from the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (CMRPF6I0011, CGRPF6G0011, CGRPF6G0012).
This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of Chang Gung Medical Foundation (201701930B0, 201700448B0).
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Hwang, S., Lin, Y., Hsiao, K. et al. Spatiotemporal assessment of mortality attributable to ambient PM2.5 exposure in Taiwan during 2008–2015. Air Qual Atmos Health 13, 233–245 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11869-019-00788-4
- Fine particulate matter
- Burden of disease
- Population-attributable fraction
- Geographic variation