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Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health

, Volume 12, Issue 11, pp 1267–1277 | Cite as

Temporal variation of suspended particles (TSP, PM10, and PM2.5) and chemical composition of PM10 in a site at the coast of the Gulf of Mexico

  • Alberto A. EspinosaEmail author
  • Javier Miranda
  • Enrique Hernández
  • Javier Reyes
  • Ana L. Alarcón
  • María C. Torres
  • Rodolfo Sosa
Article
  • 111 Downloads

Abstract

A study of temporal variations of particulate matter in different size fractions (TSP, PM10, PM2.5) was undertaken in the city of San Francisco de Campeche (SFC), in southeast Mexico, in the years 2014 and 2015 in order to assess the contribution of the chemical components. The samples were analyzed using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and ion exchange chromatography (IC) for PM10. XRF identified the presence of Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn. The results of a cluster analysis (CA) indicates a strong correlation of S and P in the three fractions due to agricultural land use and this may be related to the burning of biomass during the dry season. Also the CA also suggests that the elements Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, and Fe can be associated with a geological origin. The results of the IC analysis show high levels of Na+, Cl, and SO4−2 and the latter must be related to anthropogenic sources. The application of principal components analysis (PCA) suggests that Na+, Cl and Mg+2 are associated with marine aerosols; NO3 and SO4−2 are from emissions related to fuel combustion due to increase in the number of motor vehicles in the city.

Keywords

Suspended particulate matter Chemical analysis Marine aerosols Fuel combustion PM10 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The support from CONACyT Mexico under the program of CATEDRAS for “Jóvenes Investigadores” is acknowledged. The authors thank J.C. Pineda for X-ray spectrometer operation, DGAPA-UNAM IN-102615, and the CONACyT-279740-LANCIC project. The author acknowledges Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales of Campeche (SEMARNATCAM) for lending the devices for the sampling.

Funding information

This work was supported by the “Cátedras-CONACYT” program (project no. 1854). and at Dirección General de Asuntos del Personal Académico (DGAPA), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CONACyT-Universidad Autónoma de CampecheCentro de Investigación en CorrosiónCampecheMexico
  2. 2.Universidad Autónoma de CampecheCentro de Investigación en Corrosión-Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencias para la Investigación y Conservación del Patrimonio Cultural (LANCIC-CICORR)CampecheMexico
  3. 3.Instituto de FísicaUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoCoyoacánMexico
  4. 4.Centro de Ciencias de la AtmósferaUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoCoyoacánMexico

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