Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health

, Volume 12, Issue 9, pp 1091–1102 | Cite as

A conceptual model to understand the soluble and insoluble Cr species in deliquesced particles

  • Dinara Konakbayeva
  • Enoch Kwasi Adotey
  • Mehdi Amouei TorkmahallehEmail author
  • Marios M. Fyrillas
  • Altyngul Zinetullina
  • Ana M. Rule
  • Philip K. Hopke


Trivalent chromium is a trace nutrient essential to human beings while hexavalent chromium is a known carcinogen and was among the 18 core hazardous air pollutants defined in 2004 by the US EPA. A new conceptual model of Cr speciation in deliquesced particles (pH 4) has been developed. The model provides new information on the soluble and insoluble forms of Cr in atmospheric PM. The dominant form of Cr(VI) in the solution was found to be Cr2O72−. CrO42− was produced by the dissolution of Na2CrO4(s) and K2CrO4(s) available in the solid core, but a considerable portion of the CrO42− precipitated as (NH4)2CrO4(s), CaCrO4(s), BaCrO4(s), and PbCrO4(s). Cr(OH)3 was found to be soluble, and the insoluble form of Cr(III) was Cr2(SO4)3. Conversion of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) was higher than the conversion of Cr(III) to Cr(VI). The simulation results agree with the field measurements near Cr industries.


Atmospheric PM Deliquescence Conceptual model Insoluble and soluble Cr 


Supplementary material

11869_2019_725_MOESM1_ESM.docx (391 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 390 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chemical and Aerosol Research Team, Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering and Digital SciencesNazarbayev UniversityNur-SultanKazakhstan
  2. 2.The Environment and Resource Efficiency Cluster (EREC)Nazarbayev UniversityNur-SultanKazakhstan
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringFrederick UniversityNicosiaCyprus
  4. 4.Department of Environmental Health and EngineeringJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  5. 5.Department of Public Health SciencesUniversity of Rochester School of Medicine and DentistryRochesterUSA
  6. 6.Center for Air Resources Engineering and ScienceClarkson UniversityPotsdamUSA

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