Determining toxic metal concentration changes in landscaping plants based on some factors

  • Hakan Sevik
  • Mehmet CetinEmail author
  • Halil Baris Ozel
  • Bekir Pinar


Toxic metals are one of the most culpable air pollutants. They do not dissolve naturally. Rather, they tend to be bioaccumulative, and some of them have toxic or carcinogenic effects even at low measures. Therefore, the ability to measure and monitor toxic metal concentrations in the air is vital in fighting pollution. To achieve this, bioindicators are widely used due to their efficiency and global availability. Bioindicators are plants that accumulate some of the toxic metals found in the soil or air. This study aims to determine the differences in toxic metal concentrations depending on plant species, plant organelles, and traffic density in certain landscaping plants grown in Kastamonu town center. The results showed that the elements subjected to the study varied significantly between the different species. The highest accumulation values of such metals were obtained in cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera), and the lowest values of all metals were found in the European ash (Fraxinus excelsior). Based on our observations in this study, we determined that the most suitable species used as biomonitor is the cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera). We noticed that the concentrations of the metals differed significantly according to the species. The biggest difference recorded was five times more in Ni metal concentration. The concentrations of the studied elements were also varied depending on organelles and on traffic density, which will be discussed in detail in this paper.


Air quality Air pollution Toxic metals Elements Biomonitor Landscape plant Traffic Ni Cd Zn Organelle 



  1. Abualqumboz MS, Mohammed NI, Malakahmad A, Nazif AN (2017) Investigating indoor concentrations of PM 10 in an underground loading dock in Malaysia. Air Qual Atmos Health 10(2):147–159. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anicic M, Spasic T, Tomasevic M, Rajsic S, Tasic M (2011) Trace elements accumulation and temporal trends in leaves of urban deciduous trees (Aesculus hippocastanum and Tilia ssp.). Ecol Indic 11(3):824–830 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anttila P, Stefanovska A, Nestorovska-Krsteska A, Grozdanovski L, Atanasov I, Golubov N, Ristevski P, Toceva M, Lappi S, Walden J (2016) Characterisation of extreme air pollution episodes in an urban valley in the Balkan Peninsula. Air Qual Atmos Health 9(2):129–141. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Assire E, Al-Qodah Z, Al-Ahmadi M (2015) Impact of traffic density on roadside pollution by some heavy metal ions in Madinah city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Asian J Chem 27(10):3770–3776 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beckett KP, Freer-Smith PH, Taylor G (2000) The capture of particulate pollution by trees at five contrasting urban sites. Arboric J 24(2–3):209–230. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Çağlarırmak N, Hepçimen A (2010) Effect of heavy metal soil pollution on food chain and human health. Akademik Gıda 8(2):31–35 Google Scholar
  7. Cetin M (2016a) A change in the amount of CO2 at the center of the examination halls: case study of Turkey. Studies on Ethno-Medicine 10(2):146–155. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cetin M (2016b) Changes in the amount of chlorophyll in some plants of landscape studies. Kastamonu U J Forestry Fac16(1):239–245 Google Scholar
  9. Cetin M (2016c) Determination of bioclimatic comfort areas in landscape planning: a case study of Cide Coastline. Turkish J Agric Food Sci Technol 4(9):800–804 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cetin M (2017) Change in amount of chlorophyll in some interior ornamental plants. Kastamonu Univ J Eng Sci 3(1):11–19 Google Scholar
  11. Cetin M, Sevik H (2016a) Measuring the impact of selected plants on indoor CO2 concentrations. Pol J Environ Stud 25(3):973–979,61744,0,2.html CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cetin M, Sevik H (2016b) Change of air quality in Kastamonu city in terms of particulate matter and CO2 amount. Oxid Commun 39(4-II):3394–3401Google Scholar
  13. Cetin M, Sevik H, Saat A (2017) Indoor air quality: the samples of Safranbolu Bulak Mencilis cave. Fresenius Environ Bull 26(10):5965–5970Google Scholar
  14. Cetin M, Sevik H, Yigit N, Ozel HB, Aricak B, Varol T (2018) The variable of leaf micromorphogical characters on grown in distinct climate conditions in some landscape plants. Fresenius Environ Bull 27(5):3206–3211Google Scholar
  15. Cetin M, Onac AK, Sevik H, Sen B (2019) Temporal and regional change of some air pollution parameters in Bursa. Air Qual Atmos Health 12(3):311–316. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dimovska B, Šajn R, Stafilov T, Bačeva K, Tănăselia C (2014) Determination of atmospheric pollution around the thermoelectric power plant using a moss biomonitoring. Air Qual Atmos Health 7(4):541–557. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Elfantazi MFM, Aricak B, Baba FAM (2018a) Changes in concentration of some heavy metals in leaves and branches of Acer pseudoplatanus due to traffic density. Int J Trend Res Dev 5(2):704–707Google Scholar
  18. Elfantazi MFM, Aricak B, Ozer Genc C (2018b) Concentrations in Morus alba L. leaves and branches due to traffic density. Int J Curr Res 10(05):68904–68907Google Scholar
  19. El-Hasan T, Al-Omari H, Jiries A, Al-Nasir F (2002) Cyprees tree (Cupressus semervirens L.) bark as an indicator for heavy metal pollution in the atmosphere of Amman City, Jordan. Environ Int 28(6):513–519 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Erdem T (2018) Variation of heavy metal concentrations due to species, organelles and traffic density in some plants, Kastamonu University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Forest Engineering, M.Sc. ThesisGoogle Scholar
  21. Fujiwara FG, Gómez DR, Dawidowski L, Perelman P, Faggi A (2011) Metals associated with airborne particulate matter in road dust and tree bark collected in a megacity (Buenos Aires, Argentina). Ecol Indic 11(2):240–247 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Galal TM, Shehata HS (2015) Bioaccumulation and translocation of heavy metals by Plantago major L. grown in contaminated soils under the effect of traffic pollution. Ecol Indic 48:244–251 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gao W, Jiang W, Xiong T, Sun S, Gao R (2015) The sources apportionment of heavy metal pollution base on tree ring in Jinan. In: Intelligent computation technology and automation (ICICTA), 2015 8th International Conference on pp. IEEE, pp 1040–1043Google Scholar
  24. Gawrońska H, Bakera B (2015) Phytoremediation of particulate matter from indoor air by Chlorophytum comosum L. plants. Air Qual Atmos Health 8(3):265–272. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gratani L, Crescente MF, Varone L (2008) Long-term monitoring of metal pollution by urban trees. Atmos Environ 42(35):8273–8277 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Harguinteguy CA, Cofré MN, Fernández-Cirelli A, Pignata ML (2016) The macrophytes Potamogeton pusillus L. and Myriophyllum aquaticum Vell. Verdc. as potential bioindicators of a river contaminated by heavy metals. Microchem J 124:228–234 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hrivnák M, Paule L, Krajmerová D, Kulac S, Sevik H, Turna I, Tvauri I, Gömöry D (2017) Genetic variation in tertiary relics: the case of eastern-Mediterranean Abies (Pinaceae). Ecol Evol 7(23):10018–10030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Martley E, Gulson BL, Pfeifer HR (2004) Metal concentrations in soils around the copper smelter and surrounding industrial complex of Port Kembla, NSW. Australia. Sci Total Environ 325(11):113–127 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mossi MMM (2018) Determination of heavy metal accumulation in some shrub formed landscape plants, Kastamonu University Institute of Science Department of Forest Engineering, PhD ThesisGoogle Scholar
  30. Niazi NK, Bishop TF, Singh B (2011) Evaluation of spatial variability of soil arsenic adjacent to a disused cattle-dip site, using model-based geostatistics. Environ Sci Technol 45(24):10463–10470. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ozel HB, Ozel HU, Varol T (2015) Using leaves of oriental plane (Platanus orientalis L.) to determine the effects of heavy metal pollution caused by vehicles. Pol J Environ Stud 24(6):2569–2575,59072,0,2.html CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Qarri F, Lazo P, Stafilov T, Bekteshi L, Baceva K, Marka J (2014) Survey of atmospheric deposition of Al, Cr, Fe, Ni, V, and Zn in Albania by using moss biomonitoring and ICP-AES. Air Qual Atmos Health 7(3):297–307.
  33. Saleh EAA (2018) Determination of heavy metal accumulation in some landscape plants, Kastamonu University, Institute of Science, Department of Forest Engineering, Ph.D. ThesisGoogle Scholar
  34. Sawidis T, Breuste J, Mitrovic M, Pavlovic P, Tsigaridas K (2011) Trees as bioindicator of heavy metal pollution in three European cities. Environ Pollut 159(12):3560–3570 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schreck E, Foucault Y, Geret F, Pradere P, Dumat C (2011) Influence of soil ageing on bioavailability and ecotoxicity of lead carried by process waste metallic ultrafine particles. Chemosphere 85(10):1555–1562 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sevik H, Cetin M (2015) Effects of water stress on seed germination for select landscape plants. Pol J Environ Stud 24(2):689–693,50860,0,2.html Google Scholar
  37. Sevik H, Ozel HB, Cetin M, Özel HU, Erdem T (2019) Determination of changes in heavy metal accumulation depending on plant species, plant organism, and traffic density in some landscape plants. Air Qual Atmos Health 12(2):189–195. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Shahid M, Khalid S, Abbas G, Shahid N, Nadeem M, Sabir M, Aslam M, Dumat C (2015) Heavy metal stress and crop productivity. In: Hakeem KR (ed) Crop production and global environmental issues SE − 1. Springer International Publishing, pp 1–25Google Scholar
  39. Shahid M, Dumat C, Khalida S, Schreck E, Xiong T, Nabeel NK (2017) Foliar heavy metal uptake, toxicity and detoxification in plants: a comparison of foliar and root metal uptake. J Hazard Mater 325:36–58 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Speak AF, Rothwell JJ, Lindley SJ, Smith CL (2012) Urban particulate pollution reduction by four species of green roof vegetation in a UK city. Atmos Environ 61(2012):283–293 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Turkyilmaz A, Sevik H, Cetin M (2018a) The use of perennial needles as bio-monitors for recently accumulated heavy metals. Landsc Ecol Eng 14(1):115–120. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Turkyilmaz A, Cetin M, Sevik H, Isinkaralar K, Saleh EAA (2018b) Variation of heavy metal accumulation in certain landscaping plants due to traffic density. Environ Dev Sustain:1–14.
  43. Turkyilmaz A, Sevik H, Cetin M, Ahmaida Saleh EA (2018c) Changes in heavy metal accumulation depending on traffic density in some landscape plants. Pol J Environ Stud 27(5):2277–2284,78620,0,2.html CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Turkyilmaz A, Sevik H, Isinkaralar K, Cetin M (2018d) Using Acer platanoides annual rings to monitor the amount of heavy metals accumulated in air. Environ Monit Assess 190(10):578. 10.1007%2Fs10661-018-6956-0Google Scholar
  45. Turkyilmaz A, Sevik H, Isinkaralar K, Cetin M (2019) Use of tree rings as a bioindicator to observe atmospheric heavy metal deposition. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26(5):5122–5130. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Uzu G, Sobanska S, Aliouane Y, Pradere P, Dumat C (2009) Study of lead phytoavailability for atmospheric industrial micronic and sub-micronic particles in relation with lead speciation. Environ Pollut 157(4):1178–1185 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Yigit N, Sevik H, Cetin M, Gul L (2016) Clonal variation in chemical wood characteristics in Hanönü (Kastamonu) Günlüburun black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe) seed orchard. J Sustain Forest 35(7):515–526. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Department of Environmental EngineeringKastamonu UniversityKastamonuTurkey
  2. 2.Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Department of Landscape ArchitectureKastamonu UniversityKastamonuTurkey
  3. 3.Faculty of Forestry, Department of ForestryBartin UniversityBartinTurkey
  4. 4.Institute of Science, Programs of Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Plant ResourcesKastamonu UniversityKastamonuTurkey

Personalised recommendations