Advertisement

Obesity and cardiovascular risk in an oncology day ward population

  • David O’ReillyEmail author
  • Lisa Prior
  • Lucy Dooley
  • Paula Calvert
  • Miriam O’Connor
  • Anne Horgan
  • Emmet Jordan
Original Article
  • 17 Downloads

Abstract

Introduction

The burden of obesity and risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease amongst an oncology population receiving active treatment is ill-defined. We performed a retrospective analysis assessing the incidence of obesity and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in this group (grp) of patients as well as the predicted 10-year risk of a CV event.

Methods

Data from all patients (pts) receiving intravenous chemotherapy in an Irish oncology satellite unit over an 18-month period was extracted from chemotherapy prescriptions and electronic patient records. To calculate patients’ 10-year risk of developing CV disease, we used QRISK, a predictive risk calculator.

Results

The prevalence of obesity (BMI > 30) amongst the total population was 19% (n = 21), with 26% (n = 28) overweight (BMI, 25–< 30). Information on CV risk factors was available in 93 pts. with the following rates being observed: hypertension 34%, dyslipidaemia 19%, current smoker 18% and diabetes 11%. The average 10-year risk of a CV event (stroke/MI) in this cohort was 19.2% (± 16.6), with a relative risk of 1.4 compared to their age-matched controls without CV risk factors.

Conclusions

We observed similar or lower rates of obesity and CV risk factors in this cohort compared to the general adult Irish population. The average predicted risk of developing CV disease in this grp was moderate to high. This can have significant future implications with regard to cancer survivorship, disease recurrence and suitability for further oncological treatments.

Keywords

Cardiovascular risk Chemotherapy Obesity Oncology 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical standards

The research fully complied with local ethical standards. All data was fully anonymised at the time of record review.

References

  1. 1.
    Monteiro R, Azevedo I (2010) Chronic inflammation in obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Mediat Inflamm.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/289645
  2. 2.
    Libby P (2006) Inflammation and cardiovascular disease mechanisms. Am J Clin Nutr 83(2):456S–460S.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/83.2.456S CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Willerson JT, Ridker PM (2004) Inflammation as a cardiovascular risk factor. Circulation 109(21 Suppl 1):II2–I10.  https://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.0000129535.04194.38 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kyrgiou M, Kalliala I, Markozannes G, Gunter MJ, Paraskevaidis E, Gabra H, Martin-Hirsch P, Tsilidis KK (2017) Adiposity and cancer at major anatomical sites: umbrella review of the literature. BMJ 356:j477.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.j477 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Collins A, McCarthy T, Laffoy M (2017) Cancer incidence and mortality due to excess body weight in Ireland: an analysis of 10-year data. Ir Med J 110(8):614Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Protani M, Coory M, Martin JH (2010) Effect of obesity on survival of women with breast cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis. Breast Cancer Res Treat 123:627–635.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10549-010-0990-0
  7. 7.
    Sinicrope FA, Foster NR, Sargent DJ, O'Connell MJ, Rankin C (2010) Obesity is an independent prognostic variable in colon cancer survivors. Clin Cancer Res 16(6):1884–1893.  https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-09-2636 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Perry IJ, Whelton H, Harrington J, Cousins B (2009) The heights and weights of Irish children from the post-war era to the Celtic tiger. J Epidemiol Community Health 63(3):262–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Abarca-Gómez L, Abdeen ZA, Hamid ZA, Abu-Rmeileh NM, Acosta-Cazares B, Acuin C, Adams RJ, Aekplakorn W, Afsana K, Aguilar-Salinas CA, Agyemang C, Ahmadvand A, Ahrens W, Ajlouni K, Akhtaeva N, Al-Hazzaa HM, Al-Othman AR, Al-Raddadi R, Al Buhairan F, Al Dhukair S, Ali MM, Ali O, Aa A, Alvarez-Pedrerol M, Aly E, Amarapurkar DN, Amouyel P, Amuzu A, Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Andrade DS, Ängquist LH, Anjana RM, Aounallah-Skhiri H, Araújo J, Ariansen I, Aris T, Arlappa N, Arveiler D, Aryal KK, Aspelund T, Assah FK, Assunção MCF, Aung MS, Avdicová M, Azevedo A, Azizi F, Babu BV, Bahijri S, Baker JL, Balakrishna N, Bamoshmoosh M, Banach M, Bandosz P, Banegas JR, Barbagallo CM, Barceló A, Barkat A, Barros AJD, Barros MVG, Bata I, Batieha AM, Batista RL, Batyrbek A, Baur LA, Beaglehole R, Romdhane HB, Benedics J, Benet M, Bennett JE, Bernabe-Ortiz A, Bernotiene G, Bettiol H, Bhagyalaxmi A, Bharadwaj S, Bhargava SK, Bhatti Z, Bhutta ZA, Bi H, Bi Y, Biehl A, Bikbov M, Bista B, Bjelica DJ, Bjerregaard P, Bjertness E, Bjertness MB, Björkelund C, Blokstra A, Bo S, Bobak M, Boddy LM, Boehm BO, Boeing H, Boggia JG, Boissonnet CP, Bonaccio M, Bongard V, Bovet P, Braeckevelt L, Braeckman L, Bragt MCE, Brajkovich I, Branca F, Breckenkamp J, Breda J, Brenner H, Brewster LM, Brian GR, Brinduse L, Bruno G, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Bugge A, Buoncristiano M, Burazeri G, Burns C, de León AC, Cacciottolo J, Cai H, Cama T, Cameron C, Camolas J, Can G, Cândido APC, Capanzana M, Capuano V, Cardoso VC, Carlsson AC, Carvalho MJ, Casanueva FF, Casas J-P, Caserta CA, Chamukuttan S, Chan AW, Chan Q, Chaturvedi HK, Chaturvedi N, Chen C-J, Chen F, Chen H, Chen S, Chen Z, Cheng C-Y, Chetrit A, Chikova-Iscener E, Chiolero A, Chiou S-T, Chirita-Emandi A, Chirlaque M-D, Cho B, Cho Y, Christensen K, Christofaro DG, Chudek J, Cifkova R, Cinteza E, Claessens F, Clays E, Concin H, Confortin SC, Cooper C, Cooper R, Coppinger TC, Costanzo S, Cottel D, Cowell C, Craig CL, Crujeiras AB, Cucu A, D'Arrigo G, d'Orsi E, Dallongeville J, Damasceno A, Damsgaard CT, Danaei G, Dankner R, Dantoft TM, Dastgiri S, Dauchet L, Davletov K, De Backer G, De Bacquer D, De Curtis A, de Gaetano G, De Henauw S, de Oliveira PD, De Ridder K, De Smedt D, Deepa M, Deev AD, Dehghan A, Delisle H, Delpeuch F, Deschamps V, Dhana K, Di Castelnuovo AF, Dias-da-Costa JS, Diaz A, Dika Z, Djalalinia S, Do HTP, Dobson AJ, Donati MB, Donfrancesco C, Donoso SP, Döring A, Dorobantu M, Dorosty AR, Doua K, Drygas W, Duan JL, Duante C, Duleva V, Dulskiene V, Dzerve V, Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk E, Egbagbe EE, Eggertsen R, Eiben G, Ekelund U, El Ati J, Elliott P, Engle-Stone R, Erasmus RT, Erem C, Eriksen L, Eriksson JG, la Peña JE-d, Evans A, Faeh D, Fall CH, Sant’ Angelo VF, Farzadfar F, Felix-Redondo FJ, Ferguson TS, Fernandes RA, Fernández-Bergés D, Ferrante D, Ferrari M, Ferreccio C, Ferrieres J, Finn JD, Fischer K, Flores EM, Föger B, Foo LH, Forslund A-S, Forsner M, Fouad HM, Francis DK, Franco MC, Franco OH, Frontera G, Fuchs FD, Fuchs SC, Fujita Y, Furusawa T, Gaciong Z, Gafencu M, Galeone D, Galvano F, Garcia-de-la-Hera M, Gareta D, Garnett SP, Gaspoz J-M, Gasull M, Gates L, Geiger H, Geleijnse JM, Ghasemian A, Giampaoli S, Gianfagna F, Gill TK, Giovannelli J, Giwercman A, Godos J, Gogen S, Goldsmith RA, Goltzman D, Gonçalves H, González-Leon M, González-Rivas JP, Gonzalez-Gross M, Gottrand F, Graça AP, Graff-Iversen S, Grafnetter D, Grajda A, Grammatikopoulou MG, Gregor RD, Grodzicki T, Grøntved A, Grosso G, Gruden G, Grujic V, Gu D, Gualdi-Russo E, Guallar-Castillón P, Guan OP, Gudmundsson EF, Gudnason V, Guerrero R, Guessous I, Guimaraes AL, Gulliford MC, Gunnlaugsdottir J, Gunter M, Guo X, Guo Y, Gupta PC, Gupta R, Gureje O, Gurzkowska B, Gutierrez L, Gutzwiller F, Hadaegh F, Hadjigeorgiou CA, Si-Ramlee K, Halkjær J, Hambleton IR, Hardy R, Kumar RH, Hassapidou M, Hata J, Hayes AJ, He J, Heidinger-Felso R, Heinen M, Hendriks ME, Henriques A, Cadena LH, Herrala S, Herrera VM, Herter-Aeberli I, Heshmat R, Hihtaniemi IT, Ho SY, Ho SC, Hobbs M, Hofman A, Hopman WM, Horimoto ARVR, Hormiga CM, Horta BL, Houti L, Howitt C, Htay TT, Htet AS, Htike MMT, Hu Y, Huerta JM, Petrescu CH, Huisman M, Husseini A, Huu CN, Huybrechts I, Hwalla N, Hyska J, Iacoviello L, Iannone AG, Ibarluzea JM, Ibrahim MM, Ikeda N, Ikram MA, Irazola VE, Islam M, Ismail A-S, Ivkovic V, Iwasaki M, Jackson RT, Jacobs JM, Jaddou H, Jafar T, Jamil KM, Jamrozik K, Janszky I, Jarani J, Jasienska G, Jelakovic A, Jelakovic B, Jennings G, Jeong S-L, Jiang CQ, Jiménez-Acosta SM, Joffres M, Johansson M, Jonas JB, Jørgensen T, Joshi P, Jovic DP, Józwiak J, Juolevi A, Jurak G, Jureša V, Kaaks R, Kafatos A, Kajantie EO, Kalter-Leibovici O, Kamaruddin NA, Kapantais E, Karki KB, Kasaeian A, Katz J, Kauhanen J, Kaur P, Kavousi M, Kazakbaeva G, Keil U, Boker LK, Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi S, Kelishadi R, Kelleher C, Kemper HCG, Kengne AP, Kerimkulova A, Kersting M, Key T, Khader YS, Khalili D, Khang Y-H, Khateeb M, Khaw K-T, Khouw IMSL, Kiechl-Kohlendorfer U, Kiechl S, Killewo J, Kim J, Kim Y-Y, Klimont J, Klumbiene J, Knoflach M, Koirala B, Kolle E, Kolsteren P, Korrovits P, Kos J, Koskinen S, Kouda K, Kovacs VA, Kowlessur S, Koziel S, Kratzer W, Kriemler S, Kristensen PL, Krokstad S, Kromhout D, Kruger HS, Kubinova R, Kuciene R, Kuh D, Kujala UM, Kulaga Z, Kumar RK, Kunešová M, Kurjata P, Kusuma YS, Kuulasmaa K, Kyobutungi C, La QN, Laamiri FZ, Laatikainen T, Lachat C, Laid Y, Lam TH, Landrove O, Lanska V, Lappas G, Larijani B, Laugsand LE, Lauria L, Laxmaiah A, Bao KLN, Le TD, Lebanan MAO, Leclercq C, Lee J, Lee J, Lehtimäki T, León-Muñoz LM, Levitt NS, Li Y, Lilly CL, Lim W-Y, Lima-Costa MF, Lin H-H, Lin X, Lind L, Linneberg A, Lissner L, Litwin M, Liu J, Loit H-M, Lopes L, Lorbeer R, Lotufo PA, Lozano JE, Luksiene D, Lundqvist A, Lunet N, Lytsy P, Ma G, Ma J, Machado-Coelho GLL, Machado-Rodrigues AM, Machi S, Maggi S, Magliano DJ, Magriplis E, Mahaletchumy A, Maire B, Majer M, Makdisse M, Malekzadeh R, Malhotra R, Rao KM, Malyutina S, Manios Y, Mann JI, Manzato E, Margozzini P, Markaki A, Markey O, Marques LP, Marques-Vidal P, Marrugat J, Martin-Prevel Y, Martin R, Martorell R, Martos E, Marventano S, Masoodi SR, Mathiesen EB, Matijasevich A, Matsha TE, Mazur A, Mbanya JCN, McFarlane SR, McGarvey ST, McKee M, McLachlan S, McLean RM, McLean SB, McNulty BA, Yusof SM, Mediene-Benchekor S, Medzioniene J, Meirhaeghe A, Meisfjord J, Meisinger C, Menezes AMB, Menon GR, Mensink GBM, Meshram II, Metspalu A, Meyer HE, Mi J, Michaelsen KF, Michels N, Mikkel K, Miller JC, Minderico CS, Miquel JF, Miranda JJ, Mirkopoulou D, Mirrakhimov E, Mišigoj-Durakovic M, Mistretta A, Mocanu V, Modesti PA, Mohamed MK, Mohammad K, Mohammadifard N, Mohan V, Mohanna S, Yusoff MFM, Molbo D, Møllehave LT, Møller NC, Molnár D, Momenan A, Mondo CK, Monterrubio EA, Monyeki KDK, Moon JS, Moreira LB, Morejon A, Moreno LA, Morgan K, Mortensen EL, Moschonis G, Mossakowska M, Mostafa A, Mota J, Mota-Pinto A, Motlagh ME, Motta J, Mu TT, Muc M, Muiesan ML, Müller-Nurasyid M, Murphy N, Mursu J, Murtagh EM, Musil V, Nabipour I, Nagel G, Naidu BM, Nakamura H, Námešná J, Nang EEK, Nangia VB, Nankap M, Narake S, Nardone P, Navarrete-Muñoz EM, Neal WA, Nenko I, Neovius M, Nervi F, Nguyen CT, Nguyen ND, Nguyen QN, Nieto-Martínez RE, Ning G, Ninomiya T, Nishtar S, Noale M, Noboa OA, Norat T, Norie S, Noto D, Nsour MA, O'Reilly D, Obreja G, Oda E, Oehlers G, Oh K, Ohara K, Olafsson Ö, Olinto MTA, Oliveira IO, Oltarzewski M, Omar MA, Onat A, Ong SK, Ono LM, Ordunez P, Ornelas R, Ortiz AP, Osler M, Osmond C, Ostojic SM, Ostovar A, Otero JA, Overvad K, Owusu-Dabo E, Paccaud FM, Padez C, Pahomova E, Pajak A, Palli D, Palloni A, Palmieri L, Pan W-H, Panda-Jonas S, Pandey A, Panza F, Papandreou D, Park S-W, Parnell WR, Parsaeian M, Pascanu IM, Patel ND, Pecin I, Pednekar MS, Peer N, Peeters PH, Peixoto SV, Peltonen M, Pereira AC, Perez-Farinos N, Pérez CM, Peters A, Petkeviciene J, Petrauskiene A, Peykari N, Pham ST, Pierannunzio D, Pigeot I, Pikhart H, Pilav A, Pilotto L, Pistelli F, Pitakaka F, Piwonska A, Plans-Rubió P, Poh BK, Pohlabeln H, Pop RM, Popovic SR, Porta M, Portegies MLP, Posch G, Poulimeneas D, Pouraram H, Pourshams A, Poustchi H, Pradeepa R, Prashant M, Price JF, Puder JJ, Pudule I, Puiu M, Punab M, Qasrawi RF, Qorbani M, Bao TQ, Radic I, Radisauskas R, Rahman M, Rahman M, Raitakari O, Raj M, Rao SR, Ramachandran A, Ramke J, Ramos E, Ramos R, Rampal L, Rampal S, Rascon-Pacheco RA, Redon J, Reganit PFM, Ribas-Barba L, Ribeiro R, Riboli E, Rigo F, de Wit TFR, Rito A, Ritti-Dias RM, Rivera JA, Robinson SM, Robitaille C, Rodrigues D, Rodríguez-Artalejo F, del Cristo Rodriguez-Perez M, Rodríguez-Villamizar LA, Rojas-Martinez R, Rojroongwasinkul N, Romaguera D, Ronkainen K, Rosengren A, Rouse I, Roy JGR, Rubinstein A, Rühli FJ, Ruiz-Betancourt BS, Russo P, Rutkowski M, Sabanayagam C, Sachdev HS, Saidi O, Salanave B, Martinez ES, Salmerón D, Salomaa V, Salonen JT, Salvetti M, Sánchez-Abanto J, Sandjaja, Sans S, Marina LS, Santos DA, Santos IS, Santos O, dos Santos RN, Santos R, Saramies JL, Sardinha LB, Sarrafzadegan N, Saum K-U, Savva S, Savy M, Scazufca M, Rosario AS, Schargrodsky H, Schienkiewitz A, Schipf S, Schmidt CO, Schmidt IM, Schultsz C, Schutte AE, Sein AA, Sen A, Senbanjo IO, Sepanlou SG, Serra-Majem L, Shalnova SA, Sharma SK, Shaw JE, Shibuya K, Shin DW, Shin Y, Shiri R, Siani A, Siantar R, Sibai AM, Silva AM, Silva DAS, Simon M, Simons J, Simons LA, Sjöberg A, Sjöström M, Skovbjerg S, Slowikowska-Hilczer J, Slusarczyk P, Smeeth L, Smith MC, Snijder MB, So H-K, Sobngwi E, Söderberg S, Soekatri MYE, Solfrizzi V, Sonestedt E, Song Y, Sørensen TIA, Soric M, Jérome CS, Soumare A, Spinelli A, Spiroski I, Staessen JA, Stamm H, Starc G, Stathopoulou MG, Staub K, Stavreski B, Steene-Johannessen J, Stehle P, Stein AD, Stergiou GS, Stessman J, Stieber J, Stöckl D, Stocks T, Stokwiszewski J, Stratton G, Stronks K, Strufaldi MW, Suárez-Medina R, Sun C-A, Sundström J, Sung Y-T, Sunyer J, Suriyawongpaisal P, Swinburn BA, Sy RG, Szponar L, Tai ES, Tammesoo M-L, Tamosiunas A, Tan EJ, Tang X, Tanser F, Tao Y, Tarawneh MR, Tarp J, Tarqui-Mamani CB, Tautu O-F, Braunerová RT, Taylor A, Tchibindat F, Theobald H, Theodoridis X, Thijs L, Thuesen BH, Tjonneland A, Tolonen HK, Tolstrup JS, Topbas M, Topór-Madry R, Tormo MJ, Tornaritis MJ, Torrent M, Toselli S, Traissac P, Trichopoulos D, Trichopoulou A, OTH T, Trivedi A, Tshepo L, Tsigga M, Tsugane S, Tulloch-Reid MK, Tullu F, Tuomainen T-P, Tuomilehto J, Turley ML, Tynelius P, Tzotzas T, Tzourio C, Ueda P, Ugel EE, Ukoli FAM, Ulmer H, Unal B, Uusitalo HMT, Valdivia G, Vale S, Valvi D, van der Schouw YT, Van Herck K, Van Minh H, van Rossem L, Van Schoor NM, van Valkengoed IGM, Vanderschueren D, Vanuzzo D, Vatten L, Vega T, Veidebaum T, Velasquez-Melendez G, Velika B, Veronesi G, Verschuren WMM, Victora CG, Viegi G, Viet L, Viikari-Juntura E, Vineis P, Vioque J, Virtanen JK, Visvikis-Siest S, Viswanathan B, Vlasoff T, Vollenweider P, Völzke H, Voutilainen S, Vrijheid M, Wade AN, Wagner A, Waldhör T, Walton J, Bebakar WMW, Mohamud WNW, Wanderley RS, Wang M-D, Wang Q, Wang YX, Wang Y-W, Wannamethee SG, Wareham N, Weber A, Wedderkopp N, Weerasekera D, Whincup PH, Widhalm K, Widyahening IS, Wiecek A, Wijga AH, Wilks RJ, Willeit J, Willeit P, Wilsgaard T, Wojtyniak B, Wong-McClure RA, Wong JYY, Wong JE, Wong TY, Woo J, Woodward M, Wu FC, Wu J, Wu S, Xu H, Xu L, Yamborisut U, Yan W, Yang X, Yardim N, Ye X, Yiallouros PK, Yngve A, Yoshihara A, You QS, Younger-Coleman NO, Yusoff F, Yusoff MFM, Zaccagni L, Zafiropulos V, Zainuddin AA, Zambon S, Zampelas A, Zamrazilová H, Zdrojewski T, Zeng Y, Zhao D, Zhao W, Zheng W, Zheng Y, Zholdin B, Zhou M, Zhu D, Zhussupov B, Zimmermann E, Cisneros JZ, Bentham J, Di Cesare M, Bilano V, Bixby H, Zhou B, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Taddei C, Hajifathalian K, Lu Y, Savin S, Cowan MJ, Paciorek CJ, Chirita-Emandi A, Hayes AJ, Katz J, Kelishadi R, Kengne AP, Khang Y-H, Laxmaiah A, Li Y, Ma J, Miranda JJ, Mostafa A, Neovius M, Padez C, Rampal L, Zhu A, Bennett JE, Danaei G, Bhutta ZA, Ezzati M (2017) Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults. Lancet 390(10113):2627–2642.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(17)32129-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sturm R (2007) Increases in morbid obesity in the USA: 2000-2005. Public Health 121(7):492–496.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2007.01.006 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Demark-Wahnefried W, Platz EA, Ligibel JA, Blair CK, Courneya KS, Meyerhardt JA, Ganz PA, Rock CL, Schmitz KH, Wadden T, Philip EJ, Wolfe B, Gapstur SM, Ballard-Barbash R, McTiernan A, Minasian L, Nebeling L, Goodwin PJ (2012) The role of obesity in cancer survival and recurrence. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 21(8):1244–1259.  https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-12-0485 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Opie L (2015) Cancer and cardiovascular disease: more tightly linked than by chance. Lancet 385(9974):1182.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60635-3 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pai VB, Nahata MC (2000) Cardiotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents. Drug Saf 22(4):263–302.  https://doi.org/10.2165/00002018-200022040-00002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Koene RJ, Prizment AE, Blaes A, Konety SH (2016) Shared risk factors in cardiovascular disease and cancer. Circulation 133(11):1104–1114.  https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.115.020406 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hippisley-Cox J, Coupland C, Vinogradova Y, Robson J, Minhas R, Sheikh A, Brindle P (2008) Predicting cardiovascular risk in England and Wales: prospective derivation and validation of QRISK2. BMJ 336(7659):1475–1482.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.39609.449676.25 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Aapro M, Arends J, Bozzetti F, Fearon K, Grunberg SM, Herrstedt J, Hopkinson J, Jacquelin-Ravel N, Jatoi A, Kaasa S, Strasser F, Esmo (2014) Early recognition of malnutrition and cachexia in the cancer patient: a position paper of a European School of Oncology Task Force. Ann Oncol 25(8):1492–1499.  https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdu085 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Marshall KM, Loeliger J, Nolte L, Kelaart A, Kiss NK (2018) Prevalence of malnutrition and impact on clinical outcomes in cancer services: a comparison of two time points. Clin Nutr.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2018.04.007
  18. 18.
    Dewys WD, Begg C, Lavin PT, Band PR, Bennett JM, Bertino JR, Cohen MH, Douglass HO, Engstrom PF, Ezdinli EZ, Horton J, Johnson GJ, Moertel CG, Oken MM, Perlia C, Rosenbaum C, Silverstein MN, Skeel RT, Sponzo RW, Tormey DC (1980) Prognostic effect of weight loss prior tochemotherapy in cancer patients. Am J Med 69(4):491–497.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0149-2918(05)80001-3 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fang F, Fall K, Mittleman MA, Sparén P, Ye W, Adami H-O, Valdimarsdóttir U (2012) Suicide and cardiovascular death after a cancer diagnosis. N Engl J Med 366(14):1310–1318.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1110307 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fang F, Keating NL, Mucci LA, Adami HO, Stampfer MJ, Valdimarsdottir U, Fall K (2010) Immediate risk of suicide and cardiovascular death after a prostate cancer diagnosis: cohort study in the United States. J Natl Cancer Inst 102(5):307–314.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djp537 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bayliss EA, Reifler LM, Zeng C, McQuillan DB, Ellis JL, Steiner JF (2014) Competing risks of cancer mortality and cardiovascular events in individuals with multimorbidity. J Comorb 4:29–36.  https://doi.org/10.15256/joc.2014.4.41 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Royal Academy of Medicine in Ireland 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OncologyWaterford University HospitalWaterfordIreland
  2. 2.St. Luke’s Hospital for Radiation OncologyDublinIreland

Personalised recommendations