Cardiovascular disease risk factor profile of male Gaelic Athletic Association sports referees
- 15 Downloads
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in Ireland and worldwide. Male sporting referees registered with the Gaelic Athletic Association (G.A.A.) represent the Irish male population due to the wide range of ages and CVD risk factors. Although G.A.A. referees, a predominately male population, play a pivotal part in the success of the game, there is a paucity of epidemiological evidence relating to their CVD health status.
The purpose of this study was to assess the CVD risk factor profile of male G.A.A. referees in Ireland.
An observational, cross-sectional study design was used to assess the CVD risk factor profile of the participants. A cluster and convenience sample method was used to recruit participants aged ≥ 18 years within the G.A.A. referee community throughout Ireland. CVD risk factor profiles were studied using questionnaires, blood pressure (BP) and anthropometric measurements.
A total of 183 male G.A.A. referees were studied with a mean age of 39 years (± 6, p = 0.000) for inter-county and 47 (± 11) for club referees. Of the total population studied, 49% had pre-hypertension and 60% were overweight.
The findings from this study demonstrate the presence of hypertension and negative lifestyle behaviours within this male population. This justifies the need to implement a policy on the pre-participation screening and risk reduction of CVD for male G.A.A. referees in Ireland. This health promotion intervention would assist in reducing the CVD epidemic within this specific population.
KeywordsCardiovascular disease Lifestyle Male sporting referees Prevention Sports cardiology
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
- 1.Global Burden of Disease 2013 Risk Factors Collaborators (2013) Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2013. Lancet 386:2287–2323Google Scholar
- 2.Department of Health and Children (2010) Changing Cardiovascular Health: National Cardiovascular Health Policy, 2010–2019. Dublin, Ireland. https://www.irishheart.ie/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/changing_cardiovascular_health.pdf. Accessed 15 Mar 2016
- 4.Piepoli MF, Hoes AW, Agewall S, Albus C, Brotons C, Catapano AL, Cooney MT, Corrà U, Cosyns B, Deaton C, Graham I, Hall MS, Hobbs FDR, Løchen ML, Löllgen H, Marques-Vidal P, Perk J, Prescott E, Redon J, Richter DJ, Sattar N, Smulders Y, Tiberi M, van der Worp H, van Dis I, Verschuren WMM, Binno S, ESC Scientific Document Group (2016) European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice: The Sixth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical practice (constituted by representatives of 10 societies and by invited experts): Developed with the special contribution of the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation (EACPR). Eur Heart J 37:2315–2381CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 5.World Health Organisation (2013) Global action plan for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases 2013–2020. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/94384/1/9789241506236_eng.pdf. Accessed 22 May 2016
- 6.Department of Health (2013) Healthy Ireland—a framework for improved health and wellbeing 2013–2025. Dublin, Ireland. http://health.gov.ie/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/HealthyIrelandBrochureWA2.pdf Accessed 10 Mar 2016
- 7.Gaelic Athletic Association (2008) G.A.A. Referee development plan, IrelandGoogle Scholar
- 8.Irish Times (2011) Referee dies during NI match. http://www.irishtimes.com/news/referee-dies-during-ni-match-1.881795. Accessed 21 Dec 2015
- 13.World Health Organisation (2000) Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation. World Health Organisation technical report series. World Health Organisation, Geneva, p 894Google Scholar
- 16.Morgan K, McGee H, Watson D et al (2008) SLÁN 2007: survey of lifestyle, attitudes and nutrition in Ireland: main report. Department of Health and Children. The Stationery Office, DublinGoogle Scholar
- 17.Makrilakis K, Liatis S, Grammatikou S, Perrea D, Stathi C, Tsiligros P, Katsilambros N (2011) Validation of the Finnish diabetes risk score (FINDRISC) questionnaire for screening for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes, dysglycaemia and the metabolic syndrome in Greece. Diabetes Metab 37:144–151CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 18.Gibson I (2008) Heart smart. A Two Year Report on a Community Based Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Programme in the West of Ireland. By Croí West of Ireland Cardiology. https://www.croi.ie/sites/default/files/field/image/Heart%20Smart%20Report.pdf. Accessed 15 Dec 2015
- 26.Dimitriadis K, Tsioufis C, Mazaraki A, Liatakis I, Koutra E, Kordalis A, Kasiakogias A, Flessas D, Tentolouris N, Tousoulis D (2016) Waist circumference compared with other obesity parameters as determinants of coronary artery disease in essential hypertension: a 6-year follow-up study. Hypertens Res 39:475–479CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 29.World Health Organisation (2016) 2016 Global progress report on implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. http://www.who.int/fctc/reporting/2016-global-progress-report-who-fctc.pdf?ua=1. Accessed 10 Nov 2016
- 30.Department of Health (2013) Tobacco free Ireland. Report of the Tobacco Policy Review Group. Dublin, Ireland. http://static.rasset.ie/documents/news/tobacco-free-ireland.pdf. Accessed 10 May 2016
- 31.Royal College of Physicians (2016) Nicotine without smoke. Tobacco harm reduction. A report by the Tobacco Advisory Group of the Royal College of Physicians, Royal College of Physicians, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 32.Irish Statute Book (2016) Statutory instruments. S.I. No. 271 of 2016. European Union (Manufacture, Presentation and Sale of Tobacco and Related Products) Regulations. Dublin. http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/2016/si/271/made/en/pdf. Accessed 10 May 2016
- 33.Yu V, Rahimy M, Korrapati A, Xuan Y, Zou AE, Krishnan AR, Tsui T, Aguilera JA, Advani S, Crotty Alexander LE, Brumund KT, Wang-Rodriguez J, Ongkeko WM (2016) Electronic cigarettes induce DNA strand breaks and cell death independently of nicotine in cell lines. Oral Oncol 52:58–65CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 34.Food Safety Authority of Ireland (2011) Scientific recommendations for healthy eating guidelines in Ireland. Food Safety Authority of Ireland, DublinGoogle Scholar
- 36.Estruch R, Ros E, Salas-Salvadó J, Covas MI, Corella D, Arós F, Gómez-Gracia E, Ruiz-Gutiérrez V, Fiol M, Lapetra J, Lamuela-Raventos RM, Serra-Majem L, Pintó X, Basora J, Muñoz MA, Sorlí JV, Martínez JA, Martínez-González MA, PREDIMED Study Investigators (2013) Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a Mediterranean diet. N Engl J Med 368:1279–1290CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 41.World Health Organisation (2014) Policy brief: reducing the use of salt in the food industry to lower sodium consumption. http://www.who.int/nmh/ncd-coordination-mechanism/Policybrief34.pdf. Accessed 15 May 2016
- 42.World Health Organisation (2013) Global action plan for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases 2013–2020. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/94384/1/9789241506236_eng.pdf. Accessed 16 May 2016
- 43.Mente A, O’ Donnell M, Rangarajan S et al (2016) Associations of urinary sodium excretion with cardiovascular events in individuals with and without hypertension: a pooled analysis of data from four studies. Lancet 388:465–475Google Scholar
- 44.Ulster G.A.A (2016) Ulster G.A.A. Put referee health top of agenda. http://ulster.gaa.ie/2016/01/261532/. Accessed 12 Feb 2016
- 45.World Health Organisation (1986) Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. http://www.who.int/healthpromotion/conferences/previous/ottawa/en/. Accessed 10 Jan 2016