Prevalence of sarcopenia in patients with geriatric depression diagnosis

  • Hülya Olgun YazarEmail author
  • Tamer Yazar
Original Article



In this study, the aim was to identify the prevalence of sarcopenia among patients with geriatric depression (GD) diagnosis and to collect data to illuminate precautions to reduce disease load.


The study was completed with 116 patients (GD group) aged 65 years or older with possible or definite depression diagnosis according to the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) criteria and 301 volunteers aged from 18 to 39 years (control 1) and above 65 years (control 2). Our prospective and cross-sectional study applied the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) to control 1 group and the GDS and Mini Mental Test (MMSE) to control 2 and GD groups. All groups had skeletal muscle mass index (SMMI), muscle strength, and physical performance assessed with sarcopenia diagnosis according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) diagnostic criteria.


In our study, in parallel with the severity of disease in patients with GD diagnosis, the prevalence of sarcopenia (led by severe sarcopenia) was observed to be high compared to the control group. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 12.7%/24.2% among women and 13.8%/44.0% among men and 13.4%/32.8% in total in the control 2 and GD groups, respectively. There was a significant increase observed in the prevalence of sarcopenia, led by severe sarcopenia with a definite depression diagnosis.


For GD patients, diagnosis of sarcopenia in the early stages and precautions like improving muscle functions with protein support in diet and resistance exercises will make it possible to contribute to improving clinical results of the disease.


4-m walking test Geriatric depression Hand grip test Sarcopenia Skeletal muscle mass index 


Authors’ contribution

All authors contributed to writing the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

To complete this study with the aim of determining the prevalence of sarcopenia among GD patients monitored at Ordu University Education and Research Hospital and Ordu State Hospital neurology clinics, permission was obtained from General secretary of Ordu Provincial Union of Public Hospitals and Ordu University Education and Research Hospital ethics committee with 2018/85 decision number. Participation in the research was on a voluntary basis, with no names written on data collection forms. Patients and patient relatives were informed that information collected would not be used apart from the aims of the research. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants included in the study.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interest.

Ethical approval

The authors would like to thank to Dr. Yeliz KAŞKO ARICI (Bioistatistics and Medical Informatics Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Ordu University) for her help with the stastistical analyses of this manuscript.


  1. 1.
    Rosenberg I (1989) Summary comments: epidemiological and methodological problems in determining nutritional status of older persons. Am J Clin Nutr 50:1231–1233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rosenberg IH (1997) Sarcopenia: origins and clinical relevance. J Nutr 127:990S–991SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baumgartner RN, Koehler KM, Gallagher D, Romero L, Heymsfield SB, Ross RR, Garry PJ, Lindeman RD (1998) Epidemiology of sarcopenia among the elderly in New Mexico. Am J Epidemiol 147(8):755–763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Landi F, Topinková E, Michel JP (2010) Understanding sarcopenia as a geriatric syndrome. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 13(1):1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yadigar S, Yavuzer H, Yavuzer S, Cengiz M, Yürüyen M, Döventaş A, Erdinçler DS (2016) Primary sarcopenia in older people with normal nutrition. J Nutr Health Aging 20:234–238. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Baeyens JP, Bauer JM, Boirie Y, Cederholm T, Landi F, Martin FC, Michel JP, Rolland Y, Schneider SM, Topinkova E, Vandewoude M, Zamboni M (2010) Sarcopenia: European consensus on definition and diagnosis: report of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Age Ageing 39(4):412–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tichet J, Vol S, Goxe D, Salle A, Berrut G, Ritz P (2008) Prevalence of sarcopenia in the French senior population. J Nutr Health Aging 12(3):202–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Alexandre Tda S, Duarte YA, Santos JL, Wong R, Lebrao ML (2014) Sarcopenia according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) versus dynapenia as a risk factor for mortality in the elderly. J Nutr Health Aging 18(8):751–756. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bianchi L, Ferrucci L, Cherubini A, Maggio M, Bandinelli S, Savino E, Brombo G, Zuliani G, Guralnik JM, Landi F, Volpato S (2016) The predictive value of the EWGSOP definition of sarcopenia: results from the InCHIANTI study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 71:259–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Barichella M, Pinelli G, Iorio L, Cassani E, Valentino A, Pusani C, Ferri V, Bolliri C, Pasqua M, Pezzoli G, Frazzitta G, Cereda E (2016) Sarcopenia and dynapenia in patients with parkinsonism. J Am Med Dir Assoc 17(7):640–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yürüyen M, Yavuzer H, Yavuzer S et al (2017) Comparison of nutritional risk screening tools for predicting sarcopenia in hospitalized patients. Turk J Med Sci 47:1362–1369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Morley JE (2008) Sarcopenia: diagnosis and treatment. J Nutr Health Aging 12(7):452–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Janssen I (2011) The epidemiology of sarcopenia. Clin Geriatr Med 27(3):355–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wang C, Bai L (2012) Sarcopenia in the elderly: basic and clinical issues. Geriatr Gerontol Int 12(3):388–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fukumori N, Yamamoto Y, Takegami M, Yamazaki S, Onishi Y, Sekiguchi M, Otani K, Konno SI, Kikuchi SI, Fukuhara S (2015) Association between hand-grip strength and depressive symptoms: Locomotive Syndrome and Health Outcomes in Aizu Cohort Study (LOHAS). Age Ageing 44(4):592–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Karan A (2006) Exercise and sports in the elderly. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 52(Suppl A):A53–A56Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR (1975) Mini-mental state: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res 12:189–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Güngen C, Ertan T, Eker E et al (2002) Reliability and validity of the standardized Mini Mental State Examination in the diagnosis of mild dementia in Turkish population. Turk Psikiyatri Derg 13(4):273–281Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hamilton M (1960) A rating scale for depression. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 23(1):56–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Akdemir A, Örsel SD, Dağ I, Türkçapar MH, İşcan N, Özbay H (1996) Clinical use and the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). 3P Dergisi 4:251–259Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yesavage JA, Brink TL, Rose TL et al (1982–1983) Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: a preliminary report. J Psychiatr Res 17(1):37–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ertan T, Eker E, Şar V (1997) Geriatrik Depresyon Ölçeğinin Türk Yaşlı Nüfusunda Geçerlilik Ve Güvenilirliği. Nöropsikiyatri Arşivi 34(1):62–71Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sağduyu A (1997) Yaşlılar için depresyon ölçeği: Hamilton depresyon ölçeği ile karşılaştırmalı güvenilirlik ve geçerlilik çalışması. Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi 8:3–8Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lauretani F, Russo CR, Bandinelli S, Bartali B, Cavazzini C, di Iorio A, Corsi AM, Rantanen T, Guralnik JM, Ferrucci L (2003) Age-assosiated changes in skeletal muscles and their effect on mobility: an operational diagnosis of sarcopenia. J Appl Physiol (1985) 95(5):1851–1860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pasco JA, Williams LJ, Jacka FN, Stupka N, Brennan-Olsen SL, Holloway KL, Berk M (2015) Sarcopenia and the common mental disorders: a potential regulatory role of skeletal muscle on brain function? Curr Osteoporos Rep 13(5):351–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hsu YH, Liang CK, Chou MY, Liao MC, Lin YT, Chen LK, Lo YK (2014) Association of cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms and sarcopenia among healthy older men in the veterans retirement community in southern Taiwan: a cross-sectional study. Geriatr Gerontol Int 14(Suppl 1):102–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kim NH, Kim HS, Eun CR, Seo JA, Cho HJ, Kim SG, Choi KM, Baik SH, Choi DS, Park MH, Han C, Kim NH (2011) Depression is associated with sarcopenia, not central obesity, in elderly Korean men. J Am Geriatr Soc 59(11):2062–2068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Byeon C, Kang K-Y, Kang S, Kim H, Bae E (2016) Sarcopenia is not associated with depression in Korean adults: results from the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Korean J Fam Med 37(1):37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bahat G, Tufan A, Tufan F, Kılıc C, Akpinar S, Kose M (2016) Cut-off points to identify sarcopenia according to European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) definition. Clin Nutr 2(6):35Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bahat G, Tufan A, Tufan F, Karan MA (2017) Significance of population differences and the methodology in determining the muscle mass cut-off points for sarcopenia. Geriatr Gerontol Int 17(3):521–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kim H, Hirano H, Edahiro A, Ohara Y, Watanabe Y, Kojima N, Kim M, Hosoi E, Yoshida Y, Yoshida H, Shinkai S (2016) Sarcopenia: prevalence and associated factors based on different suggested definitions in community-dwelling older adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int 16(Suppl 1):110–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rodriguez-Rejon AI, Artacho R, Puerta A, Zuñiga A, Ruiz-Lopez MD (2018) Diagnosis of sarcopenia in long-term care homes for the elderly: the sensitivity and specificity of two simplified algorithms with respect to the EWGSOP Consensus. J Nutr Health Aging 22:796–801. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hamer M, Batty GD, Kivimaki M (2015) Sarcopenic obesity and risk of new onset depressive symptoms in older adults: English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Int J Obes 39:1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Demakakos P, Cooper R, Hamer M et al (2013) The bidirectional association between depressive symptoms and gait speed: evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). PLoS One 8(7):14–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Brooks JM, Titus AJ, Bruce ML, Orzechowski NM, Mackenzie TA, Bartels SJ, Batsis JA (2018) Depression and handgrip strength among U.S. adults aged 60 years and older from Nhanes 2011-2014. J Nutr Health Aging 22:938–943. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lino VTS, Rodrigues NCP, O’Dwyer G, Andrade MKN, Mattos IE, Portela MC (2016) Handgrip strength and factors associated in poor elderly assisted at a primary care unit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PLoS One 11(11):e0166373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Landi F, Schneider SM, Zuniga C, Arai H, Boirie Y, Chen LK, Fielding RA, Martin FC, Michel JP, Sieber C, Stout JR, Studenski SA, Vellas B, Woo J, Zamboni M, Cederholm T (2014) Prevalance of and interventions for sarcopenia in ageing adults: a systematic review. (EWGSOP and IWGS). Age Ageing 43(6):748–759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ishii S, Chang C, Tanaka T et al (2016) The association between sarcopenic obesity and depressive symptoms in older Japanese adults. PLoS One 11(9):1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Royal Academy of Medicine in Ireland 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.NeurologyOrdu University Education and Research HospitalOrduTurkey
  2. 2.NeurologyOrdu State HospitalOrduTurkey

Personalised recommendations