, Volume 71, Issue 7, pp 2262–2271 | Cite as

Interface Analysis of Spark Plasma Sintered Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Ti6Al4V

  • A. O. AdegbenjoEmail author
  • P. A. Olubambi
  • J. E. Westraadt
  • M. Lesufi
  • M. R. Mphahlele
Composition-Processing-Microstructure-Property Relationships of Titanium Alloys


This study investigated the dispersion and interface reactions in a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) reinforced Ti6Al4V composite consolidated by the spark plasma sintering technique. The 1 wt.% MWCNTs were dispersed in Ti6Al4V by high-energy ball milling, and the milled composite powder was consolidated at 1000°C. The other parameters adopted during the sintering process were applied pressure (50 MPa), heating rate (100°C/min) and 5 min holding time, respectively. Thin lamellae from the synthesized bulk Ti6Al4V/1 wt.% MWCNT composite were prepared and characterized by transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD), scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. Large agglomerations of MWCNTs in the order of 50–100 µm were distributed in the composite, and the TKD analysis on the sample retrieved from the MWCNT/Ti6Al4V interface had a polycrystalline layer of titanium carbide formed between the Ti6Al4V matrix particles and the MWCNT clusters.



The authors appreciate the Global Excellence and Stature (GES), University of Johannesburg, South Africa, for the financial support toward this work.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Nanoengineering and Tribocorrosion, School of Mining, Metallurgy and Chemical EngineeringUniversity of JohannesburgJohannesburgSouth Africa
  2. 2.Mechanical Engineering DepartmentThe Ibarapa Polytechnic (TIPE)EruwaNigeria
  3. 3.Centre for High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Nelson Mandela UniversityPort ElizabethSouth Africa

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