Advertisement

JOM

pp 1–6 | Cite as

Key Assumptions Used in the Calculation of Sustainability Parameters for Metals Processing Operations

  • Thomas P. BattleEmail author
Computational Approaches for Energy Materials and Processes
  • 5 Downloads

Abstract

No matter how sophisticated a model for prediction of important sustainability parameters, a number of assumptions must be made to yield the desired information. Some of these assumptions are well understood, and stated clearly in the description of the particular model used. However, in many cases, assumptions are not clearly stated, or sometimes not even fully understood. Using a case study of calculations for different options in iron- and steelmaking, many of these overt (and covert) assumptions are presented and discussed. It is clear that, as a model is developed and used, all assumptions should be stated clearly, including an explanation for the use of a particular assumption and a particular value. Model developers should be especially wary of assumptions that might be buried in constants or conversion factors.

Notes

References

  1. 1.
    T.P. Battle and J.M. McClelland. AISTech Proceedings, 2011, pp 943–54.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    T.P. Battle, Presentation to Oak Ridge, Tennessee Chapter of ASM International, September, 2018.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Substances and Technologies: Electric Arc Furnace (www.substech.com). Accessed 31 Jan 2019.
  4. 4.
    N. Santangelo, L. Tomadin, and A. Bertolissio. AISTech Conference Proceedings, 2015.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    K. Fujita, T. Harada, H. Michishita, and H. Tanaka, International Symposium on Ironmaking for Sustainable Development (Japan: Osaka, 2010).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    ISIJ Basic research group: Inhibition of carbon dioxide gas and the future of ironmaking process. Iron and Steel Society of Japan, 1993.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. Poveromo, Review of Ironmaking Model Data, report written for Midrex Technologies, 2011.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    J.M. McClelland, S.A. Hornby Anderson, and G.E. Metius, SEAISI Q. 31 (3), 6 (2002).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    J.M. McClelland and G.E. Metius, Midrex Technologies, unpublished reports.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
  11. 11.
    J. Stubbles, Energy Use in the U.S. Steel Industry (Washington: US Department of Energy, 2000).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Energy and Environmental Profile of the U. S. Steel Industry. US Department of Energy, 2000.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Key world energy statistics. International Energy Authority, 2018. Available through https://www.iea.org.
  14. 14.
    CO 2 emissions from fuel combustion: Highlights. International Energy Authority, 2018. Available through https://www.iea.org.
  15. 15.
    M.F. Riley, L. Rosen, and D. Drnevich. AISTech 2009 Proceedings. Volume 1, pp 89–101.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    A. Lehrman, C.D. Blumenschein, D.J. Doran, and S.E. Stewart. Chapter 6: Steel Plant Fuels and Water Requirements. The Making, Shaping, and Treating of Steel, 11th Edition. Ironmaking Volume. D. H. Wakelin, editor. AISE Foundation, 1999.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. IPCC, 1996.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    R.J. Fruehan, O. Fortini, H.W. Paxton, and R. Brindle. Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for Selected Conditions. US Department of Energy, 2000.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    J.T. Kopfle and G.E. Metius. AISTech Conference, 2010.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    D.M. Rohaus, M.A. Conedera, E.A. Mills, R. Vandlik, and P. Hardon, Iron Steel Technol. 7 (4), 37 (2010).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    W.T. Lankford, N.L. Samways, R.F. Craven, and H.E. McGannon (Editors). The Making, Shaping, and Treating of Steel, 10th Edition. US Steel, 1985.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Emission Factors Database. IPCC, 2010. http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/EFDB/main.php. Accessed 4 Feb 2019.

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Extractive Metallurgy ConsultantCharlotteUSA

Personalised recommendations