pp 1–8 | Cite as

Additive Manufacturing of Three-Phase Syntactic Foams Containing Glass Microballoons and Air Pores

  • Ashish Kumar SinghEmail author
  • Alexander J. Deptula
  • Rajesh Anawal
  • Mrityunjay Doddamani
  • Nikhil Gupta
Additive Manufacturing of Composites and Complex Material


High-density polyethylene and its syntactic foams reinforced with 20 vol.% and 40 vol.% glass microballoons were 3D printed using the fused filament fabrication method and studied for their compressive response. The three-phase microstructure of syntactic foams fabricated in this work also contained about 10 vol.% matrix porosity for obtaining light weight for buoyancy applications. Filaments for 3D printing were developed using a single screw filament extruder and printed on a commercial 3D printer using settings optimized in this work. Three-dimensional printed blanks were machined to obtain specimens that were tested at 10−4 s−1, 10−3 s−1, 10−2 s−1 and 1 s−1 strain rates. The compression results were compared with those of compression-molded (CM) specimens of the same materials. It was observed that the syntactic foam had a three-phase microstructure: matrix, microballoons and air voids. The air voids made the resulting foam lighter than the CM specimen. The moduli of the 3D-printed specimen were higher than those of the CM specimens at all strain rates. Yield strength was observed to be higher for CM samples than 3D-printed ones.



The authors acknowledge William Ricci of Trelleborg Applied Technologies for providing GMBs. The Summer Undergraduate Research Program at NYU-Tandon is thanked for providing a fellowship to Alex Deptula to work on this project. Partial funding from 3DP Security, Inc., is also acknowledged. Mrityunjay Doddamani acknowledges DST Grant DST/TSG/AMT/2015/394/G from the Government of India and thanks the ME Department at NIT-K for providing facilities and support.

Supplementary material

11837_2019_3355_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (24 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 23 kb)


  1. 1.
    N. Gupta, D. Pinisetty, and V.C. Shunmugasamy, Reinforced Polymer Matrix Syntactic Foams (Cham: Springer, 2013), pp. 1–8.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    G. Tagliavia, M. Porfiri, and N. Gupta, Compos. B Eng. 41, 86 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    N. Gupta, S.E. Zeltmann, V.C. Shunmugasamy, and D. Pinisetty, JOM 66, 245 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    V.C. Shunmugasamy, D. Pinisetty, and N. Gupta, J. Mater. Sci. 47, 5596 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    V.C. Shunmugasamy, D. Pinisetty, and N. Gupta, J. Mater. Sci. 49, 180 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Porfiri and N. Gupta, Compos. B Eng. 40, 166 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Aureli, M. Porfiri, and N. Gupta, Mech. Mater. 42, 726 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    E. Lawrence and R. Pyrz, Polym. Polym. Compos. 9, 227 (2001).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    B.R. Bharath Kumar, M. Doddamani, S.E. Zeltmann, N. Gupta, M.R. Ramesh, and S. Ramakrishna, Mater. Des. 92, 414 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    M.L. Jayavardhan, B.R. BharatKumar, M. Doddamani, A.K. Singh, S. Zeltmann, and N. Gupta, Compos. Part B Eng. 130, 119 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. Attaran, Bus. Horiz. 60, 677 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    F. Ning, W. Cong, J. Qiu, J. Wei, and S. Wang, Compos. B Eng. 80, 369 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    N. Li, Y. Li, and S. Liu, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 238, 218 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    G.D. Goh, V. Dikshit, A.P. Nagalingam, G.L. Goh, S. Agarwala, S.L. Sing, J. Wei, and W.Y. Yeong, Mater. Des. 137, 79 (2018).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    A.K. Singh, B. Saltonstall, B. Patil, N. Hoffmann, M. Doddamani, and N. Gupta, JOM 70, 310 (2018).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    A.K. Singh, B. Patil, N. Hoffmann, B. Saltonstall, M. Doddamani, and N. Gupta, JOM 70, 303 (2018).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    G.M. Gladysz, B. Perry, G. Mceachen, and J. Lula, J. Mater. Sci. 41, 4085 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. Narkis, S. Kenig, and M. Puterman, Polym. Compos. 5, 159 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    M.L. Jayavardhan and M. Doddamani, Compos. B Eng. 149, 165 (2018).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    M.L. Jayavardhan, B.R. Bharath Kumar, M. Doddamani, A.K. Singh, S.E. Zeltmann, and N. Gupta, Compos. Part B Eng. 130, 119 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    B.R. Bharath Kumar, A.K. Singh, M. Doddamani, D.D. Luong, and N. Gupta, JOM 68, 1861 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    R. Li, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 278, 36 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    X. Xu and N. Gupta, Adv. Theory Simul. (2019). Scholar
  24. 24.
    X. Xu and N. Gupta, Materialia 4, 221 (2018).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    S.E. Zeltmann, B.R. Bharath Kumar, M. Doddamani, and N. Gupta, Polymer 101, 1 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Y. Hangai, H. Kamada, T. Utsunomiya, S. Kitahara, O. Kuwazuru, and N. Yoshikawa, Materials 7, 2382 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    S. Yin, R. Tuladhar, F. Shi, R. Shanks, M. Combe, and T. Collister, Polym. Eng. Sci. 55, 2899 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    S. Livshin and M.S. Silverstein, Macromolecules 41, 3930 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    K. Sehanobish, R.M. Patel, B.A. Croft, S.P. Chum, and C.I. Kao, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 51, 887 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    I.M. Ward and J. Sweeney, Structure of polymers.Mechanical Properties of Solid Polymers, ed. I.M. Ward and J. Sweeney (New York: Wiley, 2012), p. 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Composite Materials and Mechanics Laboratory, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, New York UniversityTandon School of EngineeringBrooklynUSA
  2. 2.Rose-Hulman Institute of TechnologyTerre HauteUSA
  3. 3.Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory, Department of Mechanical EngineeringNational Institute of Technology KarnatakaSurathkalIndia

Personalised recommendations