Spatial Strain Sensing Using Embedded Fiber Optics
- 16 Downloads
Ultrasonic additive manufacturing, a three-dimensional metal printing technology, uses ultrasonic energy to produce metallurgical bonds between layers of metal foils near room temperature. This low-temperature attribute of the process enables integration of temperature-sensitive components, such as fiber optic strain sensors, directly into metal structures for load and health monitoring applications. In this study, a high-definition fiber optic strain sensor was embedded into an aluminum alloy, 6061-T6, bracket for fatigue testing. The fiber optic system allowed mapping of the strain along the length of the fiber with a spatial resolution near 1 mm, and the embedded fiber exhibited correlation with surface strains measured by digital image correlation. Finite element modeling was carried out to rationalize and compare the measured strain profile’s character and magnitude. After discussing these results, a future outlook on the technology and its applications is described.
The authors would like to acknowledge financial support from NASA’s SBIR Office, NNX16CL33C. The authors are grateful for the support of NASA’s Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) Program Digital Twin Project.
- 1.E. Tuegel, A. Ingraffea, T. Eason and S. Spottswood, Int. J. Aerosp. Eng. (2011).Google Scholar
- 2.G.W. Hunter, D.E. Berger, J.D. Lekki, R.W. Mah, D.F. Perey, S.R. Schuet, D.L. Simon and S.W. Smith, Report No. 217825, NASA, Cleveland, OH (2013).Google Scholar
- 3.E.H. Glaessgen and D. Stargel, Proc.—AIAA/ASME/SAE Struct., Struct. Dyn., Mater. Conf. (2012).Google Scholar
- 4.M. Grieves and J. Vickers, Transdisciplinary Perspective on Complex Systems, 1st ed. (Springer, 2017), pp. 85–113.Google Scholar
- 5.C.J. Parris, J. Laflen, M. Grabb and D. Kalitan, The future for industrial services: the digital twin, https://www.infosys.com/insights/digital-future/Pages/future-industrial-digital.aspx. Accessed 22 Aug 2017.
- 6.Siemens, The digital twin, https://www.siemens.com/customer-magazine/en/home/industry.html. Accessed 2 Oct 2017.
- 7.B. Marr, Forbes (2017).Google Scholar
- 8.D. Huston, Structural Sensing, Health Monitoring, and Performance Evaluation, 1st ed. (Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2011), pp. 5–15.Google Scholar
- 13.D. Havermann, J. Mathew, W.N. MacPherson, D.P. Hand and R.R. Maier, Proc. SPIE (2015).Google Scholar
- 15.C. Mou, P. Saffari, D. Li, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, R. Soar and I. Bennion, Meas. Sci. Technol. 20 (2009).Google Scholar
- 16.J. Schomer, A. Hehr and M. Dapino, Proc. SPIE (2016).Google Scholar
- 19.D. White, Adv. Mater. Process. 161, 64 (2003).Google Scholar
- 20.K. Graff, J. Devine, J. Keltos, N. Zhou and W. Roth, AWS Welding Handbook (2001), p. 263.Google Scholar
- 25.G. Bomarito, J. Hochhalter and T. Ruggles, Exp. Mech. 1 (2017).Google Scholar
- 26.J. Warner, G. Bomarito, J. Hochhalter, W. Leser, P. Leser and J. Newman, Int. J. Prognost. Health Manag. 8 (2017).Google Scholar