, Volume 71, Issue 1, pp 158–177 | Cite as

A Review of Interface Microstructures in Electronic Packaging Applications: Soldering Technology

  • Paul T. ViancoEmail author
Advances in Electronic Interconnection Materials


This report examines the role of interfaces in electronic packaging applications with the focus placed on soldering technology. Materials and processes are described with respect to their roles on the performance and reliability of associated interfaces. The discussion will also include interface microstructures created by coatings and finishes that are frequently used in packaging applications. Numerous examples are cited to illustrate the importance of interfaces in physical and mechanical metallurgy as well as the engineering function of interconnections. Regardless of the specific application, interfaces are non-equilibrium structures, which has important ramifications for the long-term reliability of electronic packaging.



The information presented in this report was the result of research and development activities by many dedicated staff and technologists across Sandia over several decades. I would like to acknowledge a few of those individuals: A. Kilgo, B. McKenzie, R. Grant, W. Wallace (dec.), M. Neilsen, P. Hlava (ret.), W. Buttry (ret.), J. Rejent (ret.), M. Grazier (ret.), J. Martin, S. Williams, T. Garcia, and G. Zender (ret.). The author expresses his sincere gratitude to Brian Wroblewski for his time to review this manuscript. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology & Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International Inc., for the US Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525. This article describes objective technical results and analysis. Any subjective views or opinions that might be expressed in the article do not necessarily represent the views of the US Department of Energy or the United States Government.


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Copyright information

© This is a U.S. government work and its text is not subject to copyright protection in the United States; however, its text may be subject to foreign copyright protection 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sandia National LaboratoriesAlbuquerqueUSA

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