A RQPSO Algorithm for Multiphase Equilibrium Calculation in the KIVCET Process
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The prediction of phase configurations and the optimization of operating parameters in the metallurgical process are normally achieved by the multiphase equilibrium calculation (MEC), which is formulated as a constrained optimization problem based on the principle of Gibbs free energy minimization. A revised quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (RQPSO) algorithm has been proposed to solve the optimization problem using three-part improved strategies. Based on the KIVCET smelting characteristics, a MEC model for the KIVCET process is established and solved using the RQPSO algorithm. The calculated and industrial data of the lead grade are 96.20% and 96.33%, respectively, those of the matte grade are 19.39% and 19.68%, and the mass fractions of Pb in the predicted and industrial matte are 3.96% and 3.34%, respectively. The calculated results of the phase configuration are consistent with the actual production data, which indicates that the MEC model and RQPSO algorithm are accurate and reliable.
We would like to express our gratitude to Project supported by the Foundation for Innovative Research Groups of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61621062).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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