Liquid->Solid->Solid Phase Transformations: Characterization and Modeling
The flow, solidification, and solute transport in continuous-casting bloom molds, under different submerged entry nozzle (SEN) conditions, were numerically investigated. Water experiments and measurements of solute distribution were conducted in order to verify the models of flow and solute transport, respectively. The results showed that the diagonally-installed four-port SEN can reduce the impingement effect of jet flow to the wall, control the level of fluctuation at a low level, and enhance the removal rate of non-metallic inclusions; the temperature variations and differences between surfaces and corners can also be decreased. Meanwhile, the local solidified shell-thinning phenomenon can be eliminated; the shell thicknesses of the wide and narrow sides at mold outlet are 17.00 mm and 16.39 mm, respectively. The largest negative degrees in the solidified shell at the narrow and wide sides are 0.92 and 0.95, respectively. While the negative degree at the bloom corner is 0.84, the center carbon concentration at the computational outlet increases to 0.7438%.
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The authors would like to express their gratitude for the financial support provided by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51471122), (51604200) and (51774217), and the key program of the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province of China (2015CFA128).