, Volume 71, Issue 1, pp 256–263 | Cite as

Severe Plastic Deformation of Commercial Pure Titanium (CP-Ti) for Biomedical Applications: A Brief Review

  • Reza MahmoodianEmail author
  • N. Syahira M. Annuar
  • Ghader FarajiEmail author
  • Nadia Dayana Bahar
  • Bushroa Abd Razak
  • Mahdi Sparham
Materials in Nanomedicine and Bioengineering


This paper reviews severe plastic deformation (SPD) techniques for producing ultrafine-grained (UFG) and nanostructured commercial pure titanium (CP-Ti) for biomedical applications as the best alternative to titanium alloys. SPD processes, effective parameters, and advantages of nanostructured CP-Ti over coarse-grained (CG) material and Ti alloys are briefly reviewed. It is reported that nanostructured CP-Ti processed via SPD exhibits higher mechanical strength comparable to Ti alloys but better biological response and superior biocompatibility. Also, different surface modification techniques offer different results on UFG and CG CP-Ti, leading to nanoscale surface topography in UFG samples. Overall, it is reported that nanostructured CP-Ti processed by SPD could be considered to be the best candidate for biomedical implants.



The authors would like to acknowledge the University of Malaya and Malaysia Ministry of Higher Education, FRGS Grant (FP059-2015A) for providing grant and facilities.

Supplementary material

11837_2017_2672_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (613 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 613 kb)


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Centre of Advanced Manufacturing and Material Processing (AMMP)University of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.School of Mechanical Engineering, College of EngineeringUniversity of TehranTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Manufacturing, Faculty of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity Technology MalaysiaJohorMalaysia
  4. 4.Department of Research and DevelopmentAzarin Kar Ind. Co.KermanIran

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