Advertisement

Somnologie

pp 1–9 | Cite as

Effects of earlier bedtimes on sleep duration, sleep complaints and psychological functioning in adolescents

It’s high time you went to bed!
  • Nadeem KalakEmail author
  • Markus Gerber
  • Dena Sadeghi Bahmani
  • Roumen Kirov
  • Uwe Pühse
  • Edith Holsboer-Trachsler
  • Serge Brand
Original studies
  • 2 Downloads

Abstract

Background

To investigate the association between bedtimes, sleep duration, sleep complaints and psychological functioning, we assessed early, middle and late adolescents who attended boarding schools with the same school schedules. Moreover, we studied whether particularly evening types benefit from set bedtimes.

Methods

A total of 1571 adolescents (age range = 11 to 21 years; mean age = 16.51 years ± 1.83; 55% females) attending boarding schools in German-speaking Switzerland were assessed. Adolescents who slept at the boarding schools (n = 1013, 64%; INTERNS) were compared with adolescents attending the same schools but who slept at home (n = 558, 36%; EXTERNS). INTERNS’ regular bedtimes were supervised by school staff, whereas EXTERNS had variable bedtimes. Participants were split into early, middle and late adolescents and morning and evening types. Participants completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic information, sleep-related information, chronotype and psychological functioning.

Results

Irrespective of attending boarding school full time or living at home, older adolescents reported shorter sleep duration compared to younger adolescents. INTERNS, early, middle and late adolescents reported more sleep complaints and more psychological issues than EXTERNS. Under supervised conditions, particularly older adolescents and evening types reported longer sleep duration but did not report less sleep complaints or more favourable psychological functioning.

Conclusion

Within a larger sample of adolescents attending boarding schools, longer sleep duration was found among full-board students with supervised set bedtimes, particularly for older adolescents who are evening types. In general, adolescents with earlier set bedtimes reported longer sleep duration, but did not report less sleep complaints or more favourable psychological functioning.

Keywords

Schools Questionnaires Sleep initiation and maintenance disorders Quality of life Parents 

Auswirkungen früherer Schlafenszeiten auf Schlafdauer, Schlafschwierigkeiten und psychologisches Funktionieren bei Jugendlichen

Höchste Zeit, ins Bett zu gehen!

Zusammenfassung

Hintergrund

Ziel war es, den Zusammenhang zwischen Schlafenszeiten, Schlafdauer, Schlafschwierigkeiten und psychologischem Funktionieren zu untersuchen. Dazu wurden Schüler in der frühen, mittleren und späten Adoleszenz untersucht, die Internate mit gleichem Stundenplan besuchten. Zudem wurde untersucht, ob insbesondere die Abendtypen mehr von festgelegten Schlafenszeiten profitierten.

Methoden

Insgesamt wurden 1571 Jugendliche (Altersspanne: 11–21 Jahre; Durchschnittsalter: 16,51 ± 1,83 Jahre; 55 % w.) untersucht, die ein Internat in der deutschsprachigen Schweiz besuchten. Jugendliche, die in einem Internat schliefen (n = 1013, 64 %; INTERNE), wurden mit Jugendlichen verglichen, die dieselben Schulen besuchten, aber zu Hause schliefen (n = 558, 36 %; EXTERNE). Die regelmäßigen Schlafenszeiten der INTERNEN wurden von Mitarbeitern der Schule kontrolliert, während die EXTERNEN variable Schlafenszeiten hatten. Die Teilnehmer wurden in frühe, mittlere und späte Adoleszenz sowie in Morgen- und Abendtypen unterteilt. Von den Teilnehmern wurden Fragebögen zu soziodemografischen und schlafbezogenen Daten sowie zum Chronotyp und zum psychologischen Funktionieren ausgefüllt.

Ergebnisse

Unabhängig davon, ob die Jugendlichen im Internat oder zu Hause schliefen, gaben ältere Jugendliche eine kürzere Schlafdauer als jüngere an. INTERNE, und zwar sowohl im frühen, mittleren als auch späten Jugendalter, berichteten über mehr Schlafschwierigkeiten und ungünstigeres psychologisches Funktionieren als EXTERNE. INTERNE zeigten insbesondere bei den spät Adoleszenten und Abendtypen eine längere Schlafdauer, aber nicht weniger Schlafschwierigkeiten oder nicht besseres psychologisches Funktionieren als EXTERNE.

Schlussfolgerung

Innerhalb einer größeren Stichprobe von Jugendlichen, die ein Internat besuchten, zeigten die Schüler (insbesondere ältere Jugendliche und Abendtypen), die im Internat schliefen und deshalb kontrollierte Schlafenszeiten hatten, eine längere Schlafdauer, im Vergleich zu Schülern die das gleiche Internat besuchten, aber zu Hause schliefen. Generell gaben Jugendliche mit festgesetzten früheren Schlafenszeiten eine längere Schlafdauer an, aber sie berichteten nicht über weniger Schlafschwierigkeiten oder ein besseres psychologisches Funktionieren.

Schlüsselwörter

Schulen Fragebogen Ein- und Durchschlafstörungen Lebensqualität Eltern 

Notes

Funding

The present study was conducted without external funding.

Compliance with ethical guidelines

Conflict of interest

N. Kalak, M. Gerber, D.S. Bahmani, R. Kirov, U. Pühse, E. Holsboer-Trachsler and S. Brand declare that they have no competing interests.

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

11818_2019_202_MOESM1_ESM.docx (19 kb)
Supplemental Table 1 Comparison between INTERNS and EXTERNS with regard to time in bed, sleep duration, sleep complaints (measured by ISI) and health-related quality of life (measured by KID-SCREEN), separately by age groups.
11818_2019_202_MOESM2_ESM.docx (16 kb)
Supplemental Table 2 Comparison between INTERNS and EXTERNS with regard to sleep duration between morning types and evening types, separately by age groups.

References

  1. 1.
    Armitage R, Hoffmann RF (2001) Sleep EEG, depression and gender. Sleep Med Rev 5:237–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aronen ET, Paavonen EJ, Fjallberg M et al (2000) Sleep and psychiatric symptoms in school-age children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 39:502–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baglioni C, Spiegelhalder K, Lombardo C et al (2010) Sleep and emotions: a focus on insomnia. Sleep Med Rev 14:227–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bastien CH, Vallieres A, Morin CM (2001) Validation of the Insomnia Severity Index as an outcome measure for insomnia research. Sleep Med 2:297–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bor W, Dean AJ, Najman J et al (2014) Are child and adolescent mental health problems increasing in the 21st century? A systematic review. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 48:606–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brand S, Hatzinger M, Stadler C et al (2015) Does objectively assessed sleep at five years predict sleep and psychological functioning at 14 years?—Hmm, yes and no! J Psychiatr Res 60:148–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brand S, Kalak N, Gerber M et al (2014) During early and mid-adolescence, greater mental toughness is related to increased sleep quality and quality of life. J Health Psychol 21:905–915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brand S, Kalak N, Gerber M et al (2017) During early to mid adolescence, moderate to vigorous physical activity is associated with restoring sleep, psychological functioning, mental toughness and male gender. J Sports Sci 35:426–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brand S, Kirov R (2011) Sleep and its importance in adolescence and in common adolescent somatic and psychiatric conditions. Int J Gen Med 4:425–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brand S, Luethi M, von Planta A et al (2007) Romantic love, hypomania, and sleep pattern in adolescents. J Adolesc Health 41:69–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Buxton OM, Chang AM, Spilsbury JC et al (2015) Sleep in the modern family: protective family routines for child and adolescent sleep. Sleep Health 1:15–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Carskadon MA (1990) Patterns of sleep and sleepiness in adolescents. Pediatrician 17:5–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Carskadon MA, Acebo C (2002) Regulation of sleepiness in adolescents: update, insights, and speculation. Sleep 25:606–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Carskadon MA, Harvey K, Duke P et al (2002) Pubertal changes in daytime sleepiness. 1980. Sleep 25:453–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Carskadon MA, van den Hoed J, Dement WC (1980) Sleep and daytime sleepiness in the elderly. J Geriatr Psychiatry 13:135–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Carskadon MA, Wolfson AR, Acebo C et al (1998) Adolescent sleep patterns, circadian timing, and sleepiness at a transition to early school days. Sleep 21:871–881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cohen-Zion M, Ancoli-Israel S (2004) Sleep in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a review of naturalistic and stimulant intervention studies. Sleep Med Rev 8:379–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Colrain IM, Baker FC (2011) Changes in sleep as a function of adolescent development. Neuropsychol Rev 21:5–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dewald JF, Meijer AM, Oort FJ et al (2010) The influence of sleep quality, sleep duration and sleepiness on school performance in children and adolescents: a meta-analytic review. Sleep Med Rev 14:179–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Diekelmann S, Born J (2010) The memory function of sleep. Nat Rev Neurosci 11:114–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    El-Sheikh M, Buckhalt JA, Cummings ME et al (2007) Sleep disruptions and emotional insecurity are pathways of risk for children. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 48:88–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fricke-Oerkermann L, Pluck J, Schredl M et al (2007) Prevalence and course of sleep problems in childhood. Sleep 30:1371–1377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gangwisch JE, Babiss LA, Malaspina D et al (2010a) Earlier parental set bedtimes as a protective factor against depression and suicidal ideation. Sleep 33:97–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gangwisch JE, Malaspina D, Boden-Albala B et al (2005) Inadequate sleep as a risk factor for obesity: analyses of the NHANES I. Sleep 28:1289–1296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gangwisch JE, Malaspina D, Posner K et al (2010b) Insomnia and sleep duration as mediators of the relationship between depression and hypertension incidence. Am J Hypertens 23:62–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gregory AM, Eley TC, O’Connor TG et al (2004) Etiologies of associations between childhood sleep and behavioral problems in a large twin sample. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 43:744–751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gregory AM, O’Connor TG (2002) Sleep problems in childhood: a longitudinal study of developmental change and association with behavioral problems. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41:964–971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Guyer AE, Caouette JD, Lee CC et al (2014) Will they like me? Adolescents’ emotional responses to peer evaluation. Int J Behav Dev 38:155–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hasler G, Buysse DJ, Klaghofer R et al (2004) The association between short sleep duration and obesity in young adults: a 13-year prospective study. Sleep 27:661–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Horne JA, Ostberg O (1976) A self-assessment questionnaire to determine morningness-eveningness in human circadian rhythms. Int J Chronobiol 4:97–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hyde JS, Mezulis AH, Abramson LY (2008) The ABCs of depression: integrating affective, biological, and cognitive models to explain the emergence of the gender difference in depression. Psychol Rev 115:291–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Iglowstein I, Jenni OG, Molinari L et al (2003) Sleep duration from infancy to adolescence: reference values and generational trends. Pediatr Electron Pages 111:302–307Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ivanenko A, Crabtree VM, Obrien LM et al (2006) Sleep complaints and psychiatric symptoms in children evaluated at a pediatric mental health clinic. J Clin Sleep Med 2:42–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Jenni OG, Achermann P, Carskadon MA (2005) Homeostatic sleep regulation in adolescents. Sleep 28:1446–1454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kalak N, Gerber M, Kirov R et al (2012) The relation of objective sleep patterns, depressive symptoms, and sleep disturbances in adolescent children and their parents: a sleep-EEG study with 47 families. J Psychiatr Res 46:1374–1382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kaneita Y, Ohida T, Osaki Y et al (2007) Association between mental health status and sleep status among adolescents in Japan: a nationwide cross-sectional survey. J Clin Psychiatry 68:1426–1435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Laberge L, Carrier J, Lesperance P et al (2000) Sleep and circadian phase characteristics of adolescent and young adult males in a naturalistic summertime condition. Chronobiol Int 17:489–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lemola S, Perkinson-Gloor N, Brand S et al (2015) Adolescents’ electronic media use at night, sleep disturbance, and depressive symptoms in the smartphone age. J Youth Adolesc 44:405–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lund HG, Reider BD, Whiting AB et al (2010) Sleep patterns and predictors of disturbed sleep in a large population of college students. J Adolesc Health 46:124–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mak YW, Wu CS, Hui DW et al (2014) Association between screen viewing duration and sleep duration, sleep quality, and excessive daytime sleepiness among adolescents in Hong Kong. Int J Environ Res Public Health 11:11201–11219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Meijer AM, Habekothe HT, Van Den Wittenboer GL (2000) Time in bed, quality of sleep and school functioning of children. J Sleep Res 9:145–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Meijer AM, Reitz E, Dekovic M et al (2010) Longitudinal relations between sleep quality, time in bed and adolescent problem behaviour. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 51:1278–1286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mercer PW, Merritt SL, Cowell JM (1998) Differences in reported sleep need among adolescents. J Adolesc Health 23:259–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Moore M, Meltzer LJ (2008) The sleepy adolescent: causes and consequences of sleepiness in teens. Paediatr Respir Rev 9:114–120 (quiz 120–111)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Morin CM, Belleville G, Belanger L et al (2011) The Insomnia Severity Index: psychometric indicators to detect insomnia cases and evaluate treatment response. Sleep 34:601–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Morin CM, LeBlanc M, Daley M et al (2006) Epidemiology of insomnia: prevalence, self-help treatments, consultations, and determinants of help-seeking behaviors. Sleep Med 7:123–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ohayon MM, Carskadon MA, Guilleminault C et al (2004) Meta-analysis of quantitative sleep parameters from childhood to old age in healthy individuals: developing normative sleep values across the human lifespan. Sleep 27:1255–1273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Owens JA (2000) Challenges in managing sleep problems in young children. West J Med 173:38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Owens JA, Spirito A, McGuinn M et al (2000) Sleep habits and sleep disturbance in elementary school-aged children. J Dev Behav Pediatr 21:27–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Paavonen EJ, Aronen ET, Moilanen I et al (2000) Sleep problems of school-aged children: a complementary view. Acta Paediatr 89:223–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Patel SR, Hu FB (2008) Short sleep duration and weight gain: a systematic review. Obesity (Silver Spring) 16:643–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Peter T, Roberts LW, Buzdugan R (2008) Suicidal ideation among Canadian youth: a multivariate analysis. Arch Suicide Res 12:263–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Polos PG, Bhat S, Gupta D et al (2015) The impact of Sleep Time-Related Information and Communication Technology (STRICT) on sleep patterns and daytime functioning in American adolescents. J Adolesc 44:232–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ravens-Sieberer U, Erhart M, Gosch A et al (2008) Mental health of children and adolescents in 12 European countries-results from the European KIDSCREEN study. Clin Psychol Psychother 15:154–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ravens-Sieberer U, Gosch A, Rajmil L et al (2005) KIDSCREEN-52 quality-of-life measure for children and adolescents. Expert Rev Pharmacoeconomics Outcomes Res 5:353–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Roberts RE, Roberts CR, Duong HT (2008) Chronic insomnia and its negative consequences for health and functioning of adolescents: a 12-month prospective study. J Adolesc Health 42:294–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Roenneberg T, Kuehnle T, Juda M et al (2007) Epidemiology of the human circadian clock. Sleep Med Rev 11:429–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Roenneberg T, Kuehnle T, Pramstaller PP et al (2004) A marker for the end of adolescence. Curr Biol 14:R1038–R1039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sadeh A, Gruber R, Raviv A (2002) Sleep, neurobehavioral functioning, and behavior problems in school-age children. Child Dev 73:405–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Short MA, Gradisar M, Lack LC et al (2013) A cross-cultural comparison of sleep duration between US and Australian adolescents: the effect of school start time, parent-set bedtimes, and extracurricular load. Health Educ Behav 40:323–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Short MA, Gradisar M, Wright H et al (2011) Time for bed: parent-set bedtimes associated with improved sleep and daytime functioning in adolescents. Sleep 34:797–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Stein MA, Mendelsohn J, Obermeyer WH et al (2001) Sleep and behavior problems in school-aged children. Pediatr Electron Pages 107:E60Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Steinberg L (1996) Adolescence. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Tavernier R, Willoughby T (2014) Bidirectional associations between sleep (quality and duration) and psychosocial functioning across the university years. Dev Psychol 50:674–682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Vioque J, Torres A, Quiles J (2000) Time spent watching television, sleep duration and obesity in adults living in Valencia, Spain. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 24:1683–1688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Vitale JA, Calogiuri G, Weydahl A (2013) Influence of chronotype on responses to a standardized, self-paced walking task in the morning vs afternoon: a pilot study. Percept Mot Skills 116:1020–1028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Wolfson AR, Carskadon MA, Acebo C et al (2003) Evidence for the validity of a sleep habits survey for adolescents. Sleep 26:213–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag GmbH, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Psychiatric Clinics (UPK), Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders (ZASS)University of BaselBaselSwitzerland
  2. 2.Department of Sport and Health Science, Division of Sport Science and Psychosocial HealthUniversity of BaselBaselSwitzerland
  3. 3.Department of Psychiatry, Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Health InstituteKermanshah University of Medical SciencesKermanshahIran
  4. 4.Department of Psychiatry, Sleep Disorders Research CenterKermanshah University of Medical SciencesKermanshahIran
  5. 5.Isfahan Neurosciences Research Center, Alzahra Research InstituteIsfahan University of Medical SciencesIsfahanIran
  6. 6.Institute of NeurobiologyBulgarian Academy of SciencesSofiaBulgaria

Personalised recommendations