Numerical analyses of pile performance in laterally spreading frozen ground crust overlying liquefiable soils
- 17 Downloads
Lateral spread of frozen ground crust over liquefied soil has caused extensive bridge foundation damage in the past winter earthquakes. A shake table experiment was conducted to investigate the performance of a model pile in this scenario and revealed unique pile failure mechanisms. The modelling results provided valuable data for validating numerical models. This paper presents analyses and results of this experiment using two numerical modeling approaches: solid-fluid coupled finite element (FE) modeling and the beam-on-nonlinear-Winkler-foundation (BNWF) method. A FE model was constructed based on the experiment configuration and subjected to earthquake loading. Soil and pile response results were presented and compared with experimental results to validate this model. The BNWF method was used to predict the pile response and failure mechanism. A p-y curve was presented for modelling the frozen ground crust with the free-field displacement from the experiment as loading. Pile responses were presented and compared with those of the experiment and FE model. It was concluded that the coupled FE model was effective in predicting formation of three plastic hinges at ground surface, ground crust-liquefiable soil interface and within the medium dense sand layer, while the BNWF method was only able to predict the latter two.
Keywordsfrozen ground crust lateral spread Finite Element (FE) modeling BNWF method
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
This study was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Transportation through Alaska University Transportation Center and the State of Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities (AK DOT&PF) under Project AUTC #410015. Their support is gratefully acknowledged. The authors are especially thankful to Mr. Elmer E. Marx, Bridge Engineer at the AK DOT&PF, for the thoughtful suggestions and comments he provided for this study.
- American Petroleum Institute (API) (1987), “Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing, and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms,” API Recommended Practice 2A (RP-2A), 17th ed., Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
- Boulanger RW, Kutter BL, Brandenberg SJ, et al. (2003), “Pile Foundations in Liquefied and Laterally Spreading Ground Pile Foundations in Liquefied and Laterally Spreading Ground During Earthquakes: Centrifuge Experiments & Analyses,” Report #UCD/CGM-03/01. Center for Geotechnical Modeling, University of California, Davis, September.Google Scholar
- Boulanger RW, Wilson DW, Kutter BL, et al. (1997), “Soil-Pile-Superstructure Interaction in Liquefiable Sand,” Transportation Research Record, No. 1569 TRB, NRC, National Academy Press, 1569: 55–64.Google Scholar
- Dobry R, Taboada V and Liu L (1995), “Centrifuge Modeling of Liquefaction Effects During Earthquakes,” Proc., 1st Int. Conf. on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, K. Ishihara, ed., Balkema/Rotterdam/The Netherlands, Tokyo, 3: 1291–1324.Google Scholar
- Fujii S, Cubrinovski M, Tokimatsu K, et al. (1998), “Analyses of Damaged and Undamaged Pile Foundations in Liquefied Soils during the 1995 Kobe Earthquake.” Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics III, Geotechnical Special Publication No. 75. ASCE, 2: 1187–1198.Google Scholar
- JRA (2002), Specifications for highway bridges. Japan Road Association, Preliminary English Version, prepared by Public Works Research Institute (PWRI) and Civil Engineering Research Laboratory (CRL), Japan, November.Google Scholar
- Kagawa T, Taji Y, Sato M, et al. (1997), “Soil-Pile-Structure Interaction in Liquefying Sand from Large Scale Shaking Table Tests and Centrifuge Tests,” Seismic Analysis and Design for Soil-Pile-Structure Interactions, Geotechnical Special Publication No. 70. ASCE: 69–84.Google Scholar
- Lam IP, Arduino P and Mackenzie-Helnwein P (2009), “OPENSEES Soil-Pile Interaction Study under Lateral Spread Loading,” Contemporary Topics in In Situ Testing, Analysis, and Reliability of Foundations-Proceedings of Selected Sessions of the 2009 International Foundation Congress and Equipment Expo, GSP No. 186 Panos Dakoulas and Mishac Yegian and Robert D. Holtz Ed., 206–213.Google Scholar
- Li Q and Yang Z (2016), “P-y Approach for Laterally Loaded Piles in Frozen Silts,” ASCE Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenviron. Engineering, In press.Google Scholar
- Matlock H (1970), “Correlations for Design of Laterally Loaded Piles in Soft Clay,” Proc. Second Annual Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, 1: 577–588.Google Scholar
- Mazzoni S, McKenna F and Fenves GL (2006), “Open System for Earthquake Engineering Simulation user manual,” Research Report, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley, CA.Google Scholar
- Tao X, Kagawa T, Minowa C and Abe A (1998), “Verification of Dynamic Soil-Pile Interaction,” Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics III, Geotechnical Special Publication No. 75. ASCE, 2: 1199–1210.Google Scholar
- Vinson TS, Wilson CR and Bolander P (1983), “Dynamic Properties of Naturally Frozen Silt,” Proc., the 4th International Conference on Permafrost, National Academy Press, 1315–1320.Google Scholar
- Wilson DW (1998), “Soil-Pile-Superstructure Interaction at Soft and Liquefying Soil Sites,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Davis, California.Google Scholar
- Yang Z, Li Q, Horazdovsky J, et al. (2016), “Performance and Design of Laterally Loaded Piles in Frozen Ground,” ASCE Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenviron. Engineering. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0001642#sthash.enD4ZzaO.dpuf. Google Scholar
- Yang Z, Zhang X, Yang R, et al. (2017), “Shake Table Modeling of Pile Foundation Performance in Laterally Spreading Frozen Ground Crust Overlying Liquefiable Soils,” ASCE Journal of Cold Regions Engineering, under review.Google Scholar