Responses of Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass to Typhoon Bolaven
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A two-month seabed-mounted observation (YSG1 area) was carried out in the western Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM) using an RDI-300K acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) placed at a water depth of 38 m in late summer, 2012. On August 2012, Typhoon Bolaven passed east of YSG1 with a maximum wind speed of 20 m s−1. The water depth, bottom temperature, and profile current velocities (including u, v and w components) were measured, and the results showed that the typhoon could induce horizontal current with speed greater than 70 cm s−1 in the water column, which is especially rare at below 20 meters above bottom (mab). The deepening velocity shear layer had an intense shear velocity of around 10 cm s−1 m−1, which indicated the deepening of the upper mixed layer. In the upper water column (above 20 mab), westward de-tide current with velocity greater than 30 cm s−1 was generated with the typhoon’s onshore surge, and the direction of current movement shifted to become southward. In the lower water column, a possible pattern of eastward compensation current and delayed typhoon-driven current was demonstrated. During the typhoon, bottom temperature variation was changed into diurnal pattern because of the combined influence of typhoon and tidal current. The passage of Bolaven greatly intensified local sediment resuspension in the bottom layer. In addition, low-density particles constituted the suspended particulate matter (SPM) around 10 mab, which may be transported from the central South Yellow Sea by the typhoon. Overall, the intensive external force of the Typhoon Bolaven did not completely destroy the local thermocline, and most re-suspended sediments during the typhoon were restricted within the YSCWM.
Key wordsYellow Sea Cold Water Mass typhoon typhoon-driven current thermocline suspended particulate matter
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The WRF wind field data are available online at http:// 220.127.116.11. We are thankful to Prof. Shanhong Gao for providing the above data. The satellite remote sensing data are available at www.remss.com. The seabed-mounted observed data in this work is collected and managed by Ocean University of China. This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 41806190, 41030856), National Program on Key Basic Research Project of China (973 Program, No. 2005CB422304), Qingdao Postdoctoral Application Research Project Funding, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Nos. 20171305, 201562030, 20176 2015, 201822027), and the Project of Taishan Scholar. We also thank the Shared Voyage of National Nature Science Foundation of China for their support.
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