Advertisement

Journal of Ocean University of China

, Volume 18, Issue 1, pp 1–8 | Cite as

Horizontal Normal Force on Buried Rigid Pipelines in Fluctuant Liquefied Silty Soil

  • Xingbei Xu
  • Guohui Xu
  • Yupeng Ren
  • Zhiqin Liu
  • Changyun Chen
Article
  • 5 Downloads

Abstract

The submarine pipelines that are buried in the Yellow River subaqueous delta can be subject to fluctuant local-liquefied soil caused by storm wave action, possibly causing pipeline damage. An experimental investigation was carried out in a wave flume to study the horizontal normal force on buried rigid pipelines in fluctuant liquefied soil. In this experiment, the soil bed was made of silt from the Yellow River Delta, whereas a steel pipe served as pipeline. Under the experimental conditions, the normal force range on the pipeline in fluctuant liquefied soil was several times higher than that in stable soil, specifically on the side of the pipeline exposed to the wave direction. The resultant force of the horizontal normal forces on the buried pipeline grew by about one order of magnitude after soil liquefaction.

Key words

wave flume experiment fluctuant liquefied soil buried pipeline normal force 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41576039). We thank LetPub (www.letpub.com) for its linguistic assistance during the preparation of this manuscript.

References

  1. Bai, Y. C., Yang, X. G., Ji, Z. Q., and Qi, X. M., 2011. Interaction between submarine pipeline sands and seabed under the effect of wave. Journal of Tianjin University, 44 (1): 64–68 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  2. Chen, W. M., Yang, Z. S., and Prior, D. B., 1992. The classification and analysis of seafloor micromorphology on the Huanghe River (Yellow River) subaqueous slope. Journal of Ocean University of Qingdao, 22 (1): 71–80 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  3. Dunn, S. L., Vun, P. L., Chan, A. H. C., and Damgaard, J. S., 2006. Numerical modeling of wave–induced liquefaction around pipelines. Journal of Waterway Port Coastal & Ocean Engineering, 132 (4): 276–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Gao, X. F., Liu, R., and Yan, S. W., 2011. Model test based soil spring model and application in pipeline thermal buckling analysis. China Ocean Engineering, 25 (3): 507–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Groot, M. B. D., Bolton, M. D., Foray, P., Meijers, P., Palmer, A. C., Sandven, R., Sawicki, A., and Teh, T. C., 2006. Physics of liquefaction phenomena around marine structures. Journal of Waterway Port Coastal & Ocean Engineering, 132 (4): 227–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Li, G. X., Liu, Z. F., Shi, J. H., Chu, X. J., Li, J. J., and Liu, G. G., 2007. The test on relation between pipeline undercutting and wave force changes. Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology, 27 (6): 31–37 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  7. Li, J. Y., Li, G. X., and Shi, J. H., 2009. Research on physical model test of force on submarine pipeline in silty bed. Periodical of Ocean University of China, 39: 435–440 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  8. Lin, Y. S., and Jeng, D. S., 2000. Short–crested wave–induced liquefaction in porous seabed. Journal of Geotechnical & Geoenvironmental Engineering, 126 (5): 481–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Liu, R., Basu, P., and Xiong, H., 2015. Laboratory tests and thermal buckling analysis for pipes buried in Bohai soft clay. Marine Structures, 43: 44–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Luan, M. T., Qu, P., Yang, Q., and Guo, Y., 2008. Wave–induced dynamic response of seabed around submarine pipeline. Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering, 27 (4): 789–795 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  11. Prior, D. B., Yang, Z. S., Bornhold, B. D., Keller, G. H., Lu, N. Z., Wiseman, W. J., Wright, L. D., and Zhang, J., 1986. Active slope failure, sediment collapse, and silt flows on the modern subaqueous Huanghe (Yellow River) Delta. Geo–Marine Letters, 6 (2): 85–95.Google Scholar
  12. Sasaki, Y., Towhata, I., Tokida, K., Yamada, K., Matsumoto, H., Tamari, Y., and Saya, S., 1992. Mechanism of permanent displacement of ground caused by seismic liquefaction. Soils & Foundations, 32 (3): 79–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Sumer, B. M., Fredsøe, J., Christensen, S., and Lind, M. T., 1999. Sinking/floatation of pipelines and other objects in liquefied soil under waves. Coastal Engineering, 38 (2): 53–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Sumer, B. M., Truelsen, C., and Fredsøe, J., 2006. Liquefaction around pipelines under waves. Journal of Waterway Port Coastal & Ocean Engineering, 132 (4): 266–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Teh, T. C., Palmer, A. C., and Damgaard, J. S., 2003. Experimental study of marine pipelines on unstable and liquefied seabed. Coastal Engineering, 50 (1–2): 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Wang, D., White, D. J., and Randolph, M. F., 2010. Large–deformation finite element analysis of pipe penetration and largeamplitude lateral displacement. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 47 (8): 842–856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Wang, L. Z., Shi, R. W., Yuan, F., Guo, Z., and Yu, L. Q., 2011a. Global buckling of pipelines in the vertical plane with a soft seabed. Applied Ocean Research, 33 (2): 130–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Wang, W. G., Liu, R., Yan, S. W., and Xu, Y., 2011b. Vertical upheaval buckling of submarine buried heated pipelines with initial imperfection. Transactions of Tianjin University, 17 (2): 138–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Wang, X., 2010. Experimental study on movement characteristics of liquefied silty seabed under waves. Master thesis. Ocean University of China, Qingdao.Google Scholar
  20. Wang, X., Xu, G. H., Sun, Y. F., Hu, G. H., Yu, Y. Q., and Lin, L., 2013. Storm–wave–induced seabed sediment liquefaction and re–stratification on the Yellow River subaqueous delta. Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology, 33 (6): 29–40 (in Chinesewith English abstract).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Xu, G. H., Sun, Y. F., Wang, X., Hu, G. H., and Song, Y. P., 2009. Wave–induced shallow slides and their features on the subaqueous Yellow River Delta. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 46 (12): 1406–1417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Xu, G. H., Sun, Y. F., Yu, Y. Q., Lin, L., Hu, G. H., Zhao, Q. P., and Guo, X. J., 2011. Storm–induced liquefaction of the surficial sediments in the Yellow River subaqueous delta. Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology, 31 (2): 37–42 (in Chinese with English abstract).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Xu, J. S., Li, G. X., Dong, P., and Shi, J. H., 2010. Bedform evolution around a submarine pipeline and its effects on waveinduced forces under regular waves. Ocean Engineering, 37 (2–3): 304–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Yang, S. L., Shen, W. Q., and Yang, Z. S., 1995. The mechanism analysis of seafloor silt liquefaction under wave loading. China Ocean Engineering, 9 (4): 375–386.Google Scholar
  25. Zeng, C., Su, Z. M., Lei, Y., and Yu, J., 2015. An experimental study of the characteristics of impact forces between debris flow slurry and large–sized particles. Yantu Lixue/rock & Soil Mechanics, 36 (7): 1923–1930 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  26. Zhao, H. Y., Jeng, D. S., and Liao, C. C., 2016. Parametric study of the wave–induced residual liquefaction around an embedded pipeline. Applied Ocean Research, 55: 163–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Zhao, S. D., and Liao, J. H., 2010. Soil Mechanics. 2nd edition. Higher Education Press, Beijing, 1–244.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Ocean University of China and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xingbei Xu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Guohui Xu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yupeng Ren
    • 1
    • 2
  • Zhiqin Liu
    • 3
  • Changyun Chen
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Marine Environment and Ecology, Ministry of EducationOcean University of ChinaQingdaoChina
  2. 2.Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Environment and Geological EngineeringOcean University of ChinaQingdaoChina
  3. 3.First Institute of OceanographyMinistry of Natural ResourcesQingdaoChina

Personalised recommendations