Dechlorination of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) by Fe/Pd bimetallic nanoparticles: Comparison with nZVI, degradation mechanism, and pathways

  • Kubra Ulucan-AltuntasEmail author
  • Eyup Debik
Research Article


In this study, the bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticle was synthesized using the catalytic element palladium to increase the effect of nano zero valent iron (nZVI), in the light of the information obtained from our previous study, in which the nZVI synthesis method was modified. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), one of the most widely used persistent organic pollutant pesticides in the world, was investigated in terms of its degradation by Fe/Pd nanoparticles and the difference with nZVI was determined. During the study, the Fe/Pd concentration, initial DDT concentration, and contact time were selected as variables affecting the treatment. The highest possible initial DDT concentration for the treatment with Fe/Pd bimetallic nanoparticle was investigated to obtain the DDT effluent concentration below the carcinogenesis limit, 0.23 µg/L. The highest concentration that could be treated was found to be 109.95 mg/L with Fe/Pd. It was found that 44.3 min of contact time and 550 mg/L Fe/Pd concentration were needed to achieve this treatment.


Persistent organic pollutants nZVI Bimetallic nanoparticle Organochlorine pesticides DDT 



The authors received research grants from the Research Fund of the Yildiz Technical University (No. 2015-05-02-DOP02). Also, Kubra Ulucan-Altuntas was supported by the Scientist Supporting Board of TUBITAK during the study. We would also like to thank Dr. Iberia Aydin and Zumre Busra Arslan for their help.

Supplementary material

11783_2019_1196_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (2.4 mb)
Supporting materials


  1. Ayoub G, Ghauch A (2014). Assessment of bimetallic and trimetallic iron-based systems for persulfate activation: Application to sulfamethoxazole degradation. Chemical Engineering Journal, 256: 280–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Badach H, Nazimek T, Kaminski R, Turski W (2000). Organochlorine pesticides concentration in the drinking water from regions of extensive agriculture in Poland. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM, 7(1): 25–28Google Scholar
  3. Barnes R J, Riba O, Gardner M N, Scott T B, Jackman S A, Thompson I P (2010). Optimization of nano-scale nickel/iron particles for the reduction of high concentration chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon solutions. Chemosphere, 79(4): 448–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bolognesi C, Merlo F D (2011). Encyclopedia of Environmental Health. Burlington: Elsevier, 438–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cakirogullari G C, Secer S (2011). Seasonal variation of organochlorine contaminants in bonito (Sarda sarda L. 1758) and anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L. 1758) in Black Sea region, Turkey. Chemosphere, 85(11): 1713–1718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen L H, Huang C C, Lien H L (2008). Bimetallic iron-aluminum particles for dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride. Chemosphere, 73(5): 692–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen W F, Pan L, Chen L F, Wang Q, Yan C C (2014). Dechlorination of hexachlorobenzene by nano zero-valent iron/activated carbon composite: Iron loading, kinetics and pathway. RSC Advances, 4: 46689–46696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clark C J II, Chen X S, Babu S (2005). Degradation of toxaphene by zero-valent iron and bimetallic substrates. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 131(12): 1733–1739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dong H, Jiang Z, Zhang C, Deng J, Hou K, Cheng Y, Zhang L, Zeng G (2018). Removal of tetracycline by Fe/Ni bimetallic nanoparticles in aqueous solution. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 513: 117–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dua V K, Kumari R, Johri R K, Ojha V P, Shukla R P, Sharma V P (1998). Organochlorine insecticide residues in water from five lakes of Nainital (U. P.), India. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 60(2): 209–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Elliott D W, Lien H L, Zhang W X (2008). Zerovalent iron nanoparticles for treatment of ground water contaminated by hexachlorocyclohexanes. Journal of Environmental Quality, 37(6): 2192–2201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Elliott D W, Lien H L, Zhang W X (2009). Degradation of lindane by zero-valent iron nanoparticles. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 135(5): 317–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. EPA (2019). Regional Screening Levels (RSLs) - Summary Table (TR= 1E-06, HQ = 1) April 2019. Washington D. C.: USEPAGoogle Scholar
  14. Erdogrul O, Covaci A, Kurtul N, Schepens P (2004). Levels of organohalogenated persistent pollutants in human milk from Kahramanmaraş region, Turkey. Environment International, 30(5): 659–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gao J F, Li H Y, Pan K L, Si C Y (2016). Green synthesis of nanoscale zero-valent iron using a grape seed extract as a stabilizing agent and the application for quick decolorization of azo and anthraquinone dyes. RSC Advances, 6: 22526–22537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. He F, Zhao D (2005). Preparation and characterization of a new class of starch-stabilized bimetallic nanoparticles for degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in water. Environmental Science & Technology, 39(9): 3314–3320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. He F, Zhao D, Liu J, Roberts C B (2007). Stabilization of Fe-Pd nanoparticles with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose for enhanced transport and dechlorination of trichloroethylene in soil and groundwater. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 46(1): 29–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Joo S H, Zhao D (2008). Destruction of lindane and atrazine using stabilized iron nanoparticles under aerobic and anaerobic conditions: Effects of catalyst and stabilizer. Chemosphere, 70(3): 418–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kalyoncu L, Agca I, Aktumsek A (2009). Some organochlorine pesticide residues in fish species in Konya, Turkey. Chemosphere, 74(7): 885–889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kolankaya D (2006). Organochlorine pesticide reidues and their toxic effects on the environment and organisms in Turkey. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 86(1–2): 147–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Liu M, Huang R, Li C, Che M, Su R, Li S, Yu J, Qi W, He Z (2019). Continuous rapid dechlorination of p-chlorophenol by Fe-Pd nanoparticles promoted by procyanidin. Chemical Engineering Science, 201: 121–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ozcan S, Tor A, Aydin M E (2011). Levels of organohalogenated pollutants in human milk samples from Konya City, Turkey. CLEAN- Soil, Air, Water, 39(10): 978–983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Qiu X H, Fang Z Q (2010). Degradation of halogenated organic compounds by modified nano zero-valent iron. Huaxue Jinzhan, 22(2–3): 291–297 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  24. Ravikumar K V G, Singh A S, Sikarwar D, Gopal G, Das B, Mrudula P, Natarajan C, Mukherjee A (2019). Enhanced tetracycline removal by in-situ NiFe nanoparticles coated sand in column reactor. Journal of Environmental Management, 236: 93–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sellers K, Mackay C, Bergeson L L, Clough S R, Hoyt M, Chen J, Henry K, Hamblen J (2019). Nanotechnology and the Environment. Boca Raton: CRC PressGoogle Scholar
  26. Shi Z, Nurmi J T, Tratnyek P G (2011). Effects of nano zero-valent iron on oxidation-reduction potential. Environmental Science & Technology, 45(4): 1586–1592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Shih Y H, Chen Y C, Chen M Y, Tai Y T, Tso C P (2009). Dechlorination of hexachlorobenzene by using nanoscale Fe and nanoscale Pd/Fe bimetallic particles. Colloids and Surfaces A-Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 332(2–3): 84–89Google Scholar
  28. Singh R, Singh A, Misra V, Singh R P (2011). Degradation of lindane contaminated soil using zero-valent iron nanoparticles. Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, 7(1): 175–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Stefaniuk M, Oleszczuk P, Ok Y S (2016). Review on nano zerovalent iron (nZVI): From synthesis to environmental applications. Chemical Engineering Journal, 287: 618–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Tian H, Li J J, Mu Z, Li L D, Hao Z P (2009). Effect of pH on DDT degradation in aqueous solution using bimetallic Ni/Fe nanoparticles. Separation and Purification Technology, 66(1): 84–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Turgut C, Gokbulut C, Cutright T J (2009). Contents and sources of DDT impurities in dicofol formulations in Turkey. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 16(2): 214–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ulucan-Altuntas K, Debik E (2017). DDT removal by nano zero valent iron: Influence of pH on removal mechanism. In: Shelly P D M, Ozaslan P D M, eds. ICONTES2017: International Conference on Technology, Engineering and Science. Antalya, Turkey: ISRES Publishing, 339–346Google Scholar
  33. Ulucan-Altuntas K, Debik E (2018). Borohydride method modification in synthesizing nano zero valent iron and its application in DDT removal. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 25(30): 30110–30121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ulucan-Altuntas K, Debik E, Arslan Z B (2019). Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane removal via nano zero-valent iron: Determination of degradation mechanism using response surface methodology. Desalination and Water Treatment, 143: 197–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Vlotman D E, Ngila J C, Ndlovu T, Doyle B, Carleschi E, Malinga S P (2019). Hyperbranched polymer membrane for catalytic degradation of polychlorinated biphenyl-153 (PCB-153) in water. Reactive & Functional Polymers, 136: 44–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wang X, Zhu M, Liu H, Ma J, Li F (2013). Modification of Pd-Fe nanoparticles for catalytic dechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol. Science of the Total Environment, 449: 157–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. World Health Organisation (WHO) (2004). DDT and its Derivatives in Drinking-water- WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. Geneva: WHO/SDE/WSH/03.04/89Google Scholar
  38. Yazdanbakhsh A R, Daraei H, Rafiee M, Kamali H (2016). Performance of iron nano particles and bimetallic Ni/Fe nanoparticles in removal of amoxicillin trihydrate from synthetic wastewater. Water Science & Technology, 73(12): 2998–3007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Yohannes Y B, Ikenaka Y, Ito G, Nakayama S M M, Mizukawa H, Wepener V, Smit N J, Van Vuren J H J, Ishizuka M (2017). Assessment of DDT contamination in house rat as a possible bioindicator in DDT-sprayed areas from Ethiopia and South Africa. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24: 23763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zhu N M, Li Y, Zhang F S (2011). Catalytic dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls in subcritical water by Ni/Fe nanoparticles. Chemical Engineering Journal, 171(3): 919–925CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Civil Engineering Faculty, Environmental Engineering DepartmentYildiz Technical UniversityIstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations