Dechlorination of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) by Fe/Pd bimetallic nanoparticles: Comparison with nZVI, degradation mechanism, and pathways
- 3 Downloads
In this study, the bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticle was synthesized using the catalytic element palladium to increase the effect of nano zero valent iron (nZVI), in the light of the information obtained from our previous study, in which the nZVI synthesis method was modified. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), one of the most widely used persistent organic pollutant pesticides in the world, was investigated in terms of its degradation by Fe/Pd nanoparticles and the difference with nZVI was determined. During the study, the Fe/Pd concentration, initial DDT concentration, and contact time were selected as variables affecting the treatment. The highest possible initial DDT concentration for the treatment with Fe/Pd bimetallic nanoparticle was investigated to obtain the DDT effluent concentration below the carcinogenesis limit, 0.23 µg/L. The highest concentration that could be treated was found to be 109.95 mg/L with Fe/Pd. It was found that 44.3 min of contact time and 550 mg/L Fe/Pd concentration were needed to achieve this treatment.
KeywordsPersistent organic pollutants nZVI Bimetallic nanoparticle Organochlorine pesticides DDT
The authors received research grants from the Research Fund of the Yildiz Technical University (No. 2015-05-02-DOP02). Also, Kubra Ulucan-Altuntas was supported by the Scientist Supporting Board of TUBITAK during the study. We would also like to thank Dr. Iberia Aydin and Zumre Busra Arslan for their help.
- Badach H, Nazimek T, Kaminski R, Turski W (2000). Organochlorine pesticides concentration in the drinking water from regions of extensive agriculture in Poland. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM, 7(1): 25–28Google Scholar
- EPA (2019). Regional Screening Levels (RSLs) - Summary Table (TR= 1E-06, HQ = 1) April 2019. Washington D. C.: USEPAGoogle Scholar
- Qiu X H, Fang Z Q (2010). Degradation of halogenated organic compounds by modified nano zero-valent iron. Huaxue Jinzhan, 22(2–3): 291–297 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Sellers K, Mackay C, Bergeson L L, Clough S R, Hoyt M, Chen J, Henry K, Hamblen J (2019). Nanotechnology and the Environment. Boca Raton: CRC PressGoogle Scholar
- Shih Y H, Chen Y C, Chen M Y, Tai Y T, Tso C P (2009). Dechlorination of hexachlorobenzene by using nanoscale Fe and nanoscale Pd/Fe bimetallic particles. Colloids and Surfaces A-Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 332(2–3): 84–89Google Scholar
- Ulucan-Altuntas K, Debik E (2017). DDT removal by nano zero valent iron: Influence of pH on removal mechanism. In: Shelly P D M, Ozaslan P D M, eds. ICONTES2017: International Conference on Technology, Engineering and Science. Antalya, Turkey: ISRES Publishing, 339–346Google Scholar
- World Health Organisation (WHO) (2004). DDT and its Derivatives in Drinking-water- WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. Geneva: WHO/SDE/WSH/03.04/89Google Scholar
- Yohannes Y B, Ikenaka Y, Ito G, Nakayama S M M, Mizukawa H, Wepener V, Smit N J, Van Vuren J H J, Ishizuka M (2017). Assessment of DDT contamination in house rat as a possible bioindicator in DDT-sprayed areas from Ethiopia and South Africa. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24: 23763CrossRefGoogle Scholar