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Determination of 27 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in water: The benefit of isotope dilution

  • Xueqi Fan
  • Jie Gao
  • Wenchao Li
  • Jun HuangEmail author
  • Gang Yu
Research Article
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Abstract

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are a unique group of emerging and nonpersistent contaminants. In this study, 27 PPCPs in various water samples were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE), and determined by isotope dilution method using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem triple quadruple mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS). A total of 27 isotopically labeled standards (ILSs) were applied to correct the concentration of PPCPs in spiked ultrapure water, drinking water, river, effluent and influent sewage. The corrected recoveries were 73%–122% with the relative standard deviation (RSD) < 16%, except for acetaminophen. The matrix effect for all kinds of water samples was < 22% and the method quantitation limits (MQLs) were 0.45–8.6 ng/L. The developed method was successfully applied on environmental water samples. The SPE extracts of spiked ultrapure water, drinking water, river and wastewater effluent were stored for 70 days, and the ILSs-corrected recoveries of 27 PPCPs were obtained to evaluate the correction ability of ILSs in the presence of variety interferences. The recoveries of 27 PPCPs over 70 days were within the scope of 72%–140% with the recovery variation < 37% in all cases. The isotope dilution method seems to be of benefit when the extract has to be stored for long time before the instrument analysis.

Keywords

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) Isotopically labeled standard (ILSs) Water Solid-phase extraction (SPE) LC-MS/MS 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Major Science and Technology Program for Water Pollution Control and Treatment in China (Nos. 2017ZX07202-001 and 2017ZX07202-004).

Supplementary material

11783_2019_1187_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (28 kb)
Supporting materials

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Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xueqi Fan
    • 1
  • Jie Gao
    • 1
  • Wenchao Li
    • 2
  • Jun Huang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Gang Yu
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (SKJLESPC), Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control (BKLEOC), School of EnvironmentTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.CSD IDEA (Beijing) Environment Test & Analysis Co., Ltd.BeijingChina

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