Journal of Central South University

, Volume 26, Issue 1, pp 241–255

# Pseudo-static analysis of cantilever retaining walls using upper bound limit analysis approach

• Navid Ganjian
Article

## Abstract

Given the extensive utilization of cantilever retaining walls in construction and development projects, their optimal design and analysis with proper attention to seismic loads is a typical engineering problem. This research presents a new algorithm for pseudo-static analysis of retaining walls employing upper bound method. The algorithm can be utilized to design and check the external and internal stability of the wall based on the proposed mechanism. One of the main features of this algorithm is its ability to determine the critical condition of failure wedges, the minimum safety factor and maximum force acting on the wall, as well as the minimum weight of the wall, simultaneously, by effectively using the multi-objective optimization. The results obtained by the proposed failure mechanisms show that, while using the upper bound limit analysis approach, the active force should be maximized concurrent with optimizing the direction of the plane passing through the back of the heel. The present study also applies the proposed algorithm to determine the critical direction of the earthquake acceleration coefficient. The critical direction of earthquake acceleration coefficient is defined as the direction that maximizes the active force exerted on the wall and minimizes the safety factor for wall stability. The results obtained in this study are in good agreement with those of similar studies carried out based on the limit equilibrium method and finite element analysis. The critical failure mechanisms were determined via optimization with genetic algorithm.

## Key words

retaining wall upper bound pseudo-static analysis safety factor multi-objective optimization

# 采用上限分析方法对悬臂式挡土墙进行伪静力分析

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