Advertisement

Journal of Central South University

, Volume 25, Issue 8, pp 1976–1986 | Cite as

Conventional triaxial compression on hollow cylinders of sandstone with various fillings: Relationship of surrounding rock with support

  • Qiu-hong Wu (吴秋红)
  • Xi-bing Li (李夕兵)
  • Ming Tao (陶明)
  • Fu-jun Zhao (赵伏军)
  • Lei Weng (翁磊)
  • Long-jun Dong (董陇军)
Article
  • 71 Downloads

Abstract

The interaction of surrounding rock with a support system in deep underground tunnels has attracted extensive interest from researchers. However, the effect of high axial stress on tunnel stability has not been fully considered. In this study, compression tests with and without confining pressure were conducted on solid specimens and hollow cylinder specimens filled with aluminium, lead, and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) to investigate the strength, deformation and failure characteristics of circular roadways subjected to high axial stress. The influence of the three-dimensional stress on the surrounding rock supported with different stiffness was studied. The results indicate that the strength and peak strain of hollow cylinders filled with PMMA are higher than those of hollow cylinders filled with aluminium or lead, indicating that flexible retaining is beneficial for roadway stability. The results obtained in this paper can contribute to better understanding the support failure of a buried roadway subjected to high axial stress and thus to analyzing and evaluating roadway stability.

Key words

mechanical properties hollow cylinder flexible retaining axial stress support stiffness 

含不同充填物厚壁圆筒砂岩试样的常规三轴压缩试验:围岩与支护关系的研究

摘要

深部地下硐室围岩与支护的相互作用关系研究已经吸引了研究者的广泛兴趣。然而,较高轴向 应力对硐室稳定性的影响并没有得到充分考虑。基于单轴和常规三轴压缩试验,采用完整试样、空心、 铝棒、铅棒及有机玻璃充填的厚壁圆筒试样,模拟研究三维应力状态下不同刚度支护对圆形巷道的强 度、变形和破坏特征的影响。结果表明,充填低刚度有机玻璃的试样,其强度最高,峰值变形最大, 因而柔性支护有利于维持巷道的稳定。研究结果为理解具有较高轴向应力深埋巷道支护的失效行为, 分析和评估巷道的稳定性提供了参考。

关键词

力学特性 厚壁圆筒 柔性支护 轴向应力 支护刚度 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    ORTLEPP W D, STACEY T R. Rock burst mechanisms in tunnels and shafts [J]. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 1994, 9: 59–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    MARTIN C D, READ R S, MARTINO J B. Observation of brittle failure around a circular test tunnel [J]. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 1997, 34(7): 1065–1073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    DIEDERICHS M S, KAISER P K, EBERHARDT E. Damage initiation and propagation in hard rock during tunneling and the influence of near-face stress rotation [J]. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 2004, 41: 785–812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    WENG L, HUANG L Q, TAHERI A, LI X B. Rock burst characteristics and numerical simulation based on a strain energy density index: A case study of a roadway in Linglong gold mine, China [J]. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 2017, 69: 223–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    JIAO Y Y, SONG L, WANG X Z, ADOKO A C. Improvement of the U-shaped steel sets for supporting the roadways in loose thick coal seam [J]. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 2013, 60(2): 19–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    LI C C. Field observations of rock bolts in high stress rock masses [J]. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 2009, 43(4): 491–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    KANG H, WU Y, GAO F, LIN J, JIANG P. Fracture characteristics in rock bolts in underground coal mine roadways [J]. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 2013, 62(5): 105–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    SCHUMACHER, F P, KIM E. Modeling the pipe umbrella roof support system in a Western US underground coal mine [J]. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 2013, 60(6): 114–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    LI Shu-cai, WANG Hong-tao, WANG Qi, JIANG Bei, WANG Fu-qi, GUO Nian-bo, LIU Wen-jiang, REN Yao-xi. Failure mechanism of bolting support and high-strength bolt-grouting technology for deep and soft surrounding rock with high stress [J]. Journal of Central South University, 2016, 23(2): 440–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    CHARETTE F, PLOUFFE M. Roofex: Results of laboratory testing of a new concept of yieldable tendon [C]// POTVIN Y. Deep Mining 07, Proceeding of the 4th International Seminar on Deep and High Stress Mining. Perth: Australian Centre for Geomechanics, 2007: 395–404.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    VARDEN R, LACHENICHT R, PLAYER J, THOMPSON A, VILLAESCUSA E. Development and implementation of the Garford dynamic bolt at the Kanowna belle mine [C]// 10th Underground Operators’ Conference. Launceston, Australia, 2008: 95–102.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    LI C C. A new energy-absorbing bolt for rock support in high stress rock masses [J]. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 2010, 47(3): 396–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    HADJIGEORGIOU J, POTVIN Y. A critical assessment of dynamic rock reinforcement and support testing facilities [J]. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 2011, 44(5): 565–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    LI C C, DOUCET C. Performance of d-bolts under dynamic loading [J]. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 2012, 45(2): 193–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    SHEN B. Coal mine roadway stability in soft rock: A case study [J]. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 2013, 47(6): 2225–2238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    FENG X T, HAO X J, JIANG Q, LI S J, HUDSON J A. Rock cracking indices for improved tunnel support design: A case study for columnar jointed rock masses [J]. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 2016, 49(6): 2115–2130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    GRASSELLI G. 3D behaviour of bolted rock joints: experimental and numerical study [J]. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 2005, 42(1): 13–24.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    JALALIFAR H, AZIZ N, HADI M. The effect of surface profile, rock strength and pretension load on bending behaviour of fully grouted bolts [J]. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 2006, 24(5): 1203–1227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    FU H Y, JIANG Z M, LI H Y. Physical modeling of compressive behaviors of anchored rock masses [J]. International Journal of Geomechanics, 2011, 11(3): 186–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    WANG C. The optimal support intensity for coal mine roadway tunnels in soft rocks [J]. International Journal of Rock Mechanics & Mining Sciences, 2000, 37(7): 1155–1160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    MENG B, JING H, CHEN K, SU H. Failure mechanism and stability control of a large section of very soft roadway surrounding rock shear slip [J]. International Journal of Mining Science and Technology, 2013, 23(1): 127–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    GALE W J, BLACKWOOD R L. Stress distributions and rock failure around coal mine roadways [J]. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Science and Geomechanics Abstracts, 1987, 24(3): 165–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    ZHU Z, LI Y, XIE J, LIU B. The effect of principal stress orientation on tunnel stability [J]. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 2015, 49: 279–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    BROWN E T, HOEK E. Trends in relationships between measured in-situ, stresses and depth [J]. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Science and Geomechanics Abstracts, 1978, 15(4): 211–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    KANG H P, ZHANG X, SI L P, WU Y Z, GAO F Q. In-situ stress measurements and stress distribution characteristics in underground coal mines in China [J]. Engineering Geology, 2010, 116(3, 4): 333–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    WANG S, WU Z, GUO M, GE X. Theoretical solutions of a circular tunnel with the influence of axial in situ stress in elastic–brittle–plastic rock [J]. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 2012, 30: 155–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    JIA P, YANG T H, YU Q L. Mechanism of parallel fractures around deep underground excavations [J]. Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics, 2012, 61(1): 57–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    BROWN E T, BRAY J W, LADANYI B, HOEK E. Ground response curves for rock tunnels [J]. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 1983, 109(1): 15–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    CARRANZA-TORRES C, FAIRHURST C. The elastoplastic response of underground excavations in rock masses that satisfy the Hoek–Brown failure criterion [J]. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 1999, 36: 777–809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    MARTIN C D, KAISER P K, MCCREATH D R. Hoek- Brown parameters for predicting the depth of brittle failure arou [J]. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 1999, 36(1): 136–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    LU A Z, XU G S, SUN F, SUN W Q. Elasto-plastic analysis of a circular tunnel including the effect of the axial in situ stress [J]. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 2010, 47(1): 50–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    QIAN Q, ZHOU X, XIA E. Effects of the axial in situ stresses on the zonal disintegration phenomenon in the surrounding rock masses around a deep circular tunnel [J]. Journal of Mining Science, 2012, 48(2): 276–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    JIA P, ZHU W C. Mechanism of zonal disintegration around deep underground excavations under triaxial stress—Insight from numerical test [J]. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 2015, 48(11): 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. [34]
    ADAMS F D. An experimental contribution to the question of the depth of the zone of flow in the earth's crust [J]. Journal of Geology, 1912, 20(2): 97–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. [35]
    KING L V. On the limiting strength of rocks under conditions of stress existing in the earth’s interior [J]. Journal of Geology, 1912, 20(2): 119–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. [36]
    GAY N C. Fracture growth around openings in thick-walled cylinders of rock subjected to hydrostatic compression [J]. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences and Geomechanics Abstracts, 1973, 10(3): 209–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. [37]
    EWY R T, COOK N G W. Deformation and fracture around cylindrical openings in rock II: Initiation, growth and interaction of fractures [J]. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences and Geomechanics Abstracts, 1990, 27(5): 409–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    FRANCOIS B, LABIOUSE V, DIZIER A, MARINELLI F, CHARLIER R, COLLIN F. Hollow cylinder tests on boom clay: Modelling of strain localization in the anisotropic excavation damaged zone [J]. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 2014, 47(1): 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. [39]
    LABIOUSE V, VIETOR T. Laboratory and in situ simulation tests of the excavation damaged zone around galleries in opalinus clay [J]. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 2014, 47(1): 57–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. [40]
    WU Qing-liang, LU Ai-zhong, GAO Yong-tao, WU Shun-chuan, ZHANG Ning. Stress analytical solution for plane problem of a double-layered thick-walled cylinder subjected to a type of non-uniform distributed pressure [J]. Journal of Central South University, 2014, 21(5): 2074–2082.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. [41]
    WU Qiu-hong, LI Xi-bing, ZHAO Fu-jun, TAO Ming, DONG Long-jun, CHEN Lu. Failure characteristics of hollow cylindrical specimens of limestone under hole pressure unloading [J]. Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering, 2017, 36(6): 1424–1433. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  42. [42]
    SANTARELLI F J, BROWN E T. Failure of three sedimentary rocks in triaxial and hollow cylinder compression tests [J]. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences and Geomechanics Abstracts, 1989, 26(89): 401–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. [43]
    LABIOUSE V, SAUTHIER C, YOU S. Hollow cylinder simulation experiments of galleries in boom clay formation [J]. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 2014, 47(1): 43–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. [44]
    ZHAO Y L, ZHANG L Y, WANG W J, WAN W. Transient pulse test and morphological analysis of single rock fractures [J]. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 2017, 91: 139–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. [45]
    ZHAO Y L, ZHANG L Y, WANG W J, TANG J Z. Cracking and stress–strain behavior of rock-like material containing two flaws under uniaxial compression [J]. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 2016, 49(7): 2665–2687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. [46]
    ZHAO Y L, ZHANG L Y, WANG W J, WAN W, LI S Q, MA W H, WANG Y X. Creep behavior of intact and cracked limestone under multi-level loading and unloading cycles [J]. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 2017, 50(6): 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. [47]
    ZHAO Y L, WANG Y X, WANG W J, WAN W, TANG J Z. Modeling of non-linear rheological behavior of hard rock using triaxial rheological experiment [J]. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 2017, 93: 66–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Central South University Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qiu-hong Wu (吴秋红)
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Xi-bing Li (李夕兵)
    • 1
  • Ming Tao (陶明)
    • 1
  • Fu-jun Zhao (赵伏军)
    • 4
  • Lei Weng (翁磊)
    • 5
  • Long-jun Dong (董陇军)
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Resources and Safety EngineeringCentral South UniversityChangshaChina
  2. 2.Work Safety Key Laboratory on Prevention and Control of Gas and Roof Disasters for Southern Coal MinesHunan University of Science and TechnologyXiangtanChina
  3. 3.Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Safe Mining Techniques of Coal MinesHunan University of Science and TechnologyXiangtanChina
  4. 4.School of Resources, Environment and Safety EngineeringHunan University of Science and TechnologyXiangtanChina
  5. 5.School of Civil EngineeringWuhan UniversityWuhanChina

Personalised recommendations