Journal of Central South University

, Volume 25, Issue 6, pp 1386–1398 | Cite as

Ground stability of underground gateroad with 1 km burial depth: A case study from Xingdong coal mine, China

  • Guang-chao Zhang (张广超)Email author
  • Fu-lian He (何富连)
  • Yong-hui Lai (来永辉)
  • Hong-guo Jia (贾红果)


This paper presents an integrated investigation of the ground stability of a deep gateroad with a 1 km burial depth based on a field test, case studies, and numerical modelling. In situ stress measurements and mechanical properties tests were first conducted in the test site. Then, the deformation behavior, stress and yield zone distributions, as well as the bolts load of the gateroad, were simulated using FLAC3D software. The model results demonstrated that the soft rock properties and high in situ stress were the main factors for the deep gateroad instability, and the shear slip failure induced by the high stress was the primary failure model for the deep rock mass. In addition, the unsuitable support patterns, especially the relatively short bolts/cables with low pre-tensions, the lack of high-strengthen secondary supports and the unsupported floor strata, also contributed to the gateroad instability. Subsequently, a new combined supporting strategy, incorporating longer bolts/cables, yielding ring supports, and grouting measures, was proposed for the deep gateroad, and its validity was verified via field monitoring. All these could be a reference for understanding the failure mechanism of the gateroad with 1 km burial depth.

Key words

deep coal mine soft rock burial depth failure mechanism deformation behavior support strategy 



本文采用数值模拟、案例分析、现场试验相结合的综合研究方法分析千米埋深煤矿巷道围岩稳 定性。首先,在试验巷道进行了地应力监测与煤岩体力学性能测试;然后,通过FLAC3D 数值模拟软 件分析了试验巷道围岩位移场、应力场、塑性区与锚杆受力特征。研究结果表明,软岩特性与高地应 力是深部巷道失稳的主要因素,高应力引起的剪切滑移破坏是深部巷道围岩的主要破坏模式;不合理 的支护方式,特别是锚杆索长度短且预紧力低、缺少高强二次支护、底板无支护等亦是巷道失稳的原 因。基于上述研究,提出了集长锚杆索、可缩性环形支架、注浆加固于一体的联合加固措施,并通过 现场监测验证了支护方案的合理性。本文研究成果为深入理解千米深井巷道破坏机制提供了借鉴。


深部矿井 软岩 埋深 破坏机制 变形特性 支护方案 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    HUANG Wan, YUAN Qi, TAN Yun, WANG Jun, LIU Guo, QU Guang, LI Chao. An innovative support technology employing a concrete-filled steel tubular structure for a 1000-m-deep roadway in a high in situ stress field [J]. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 2018, 73: 26–36. DOI: 10.1016/j.tust. 2017.11.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    ZHANG Guang, HE Fu, JIA Hong, LAI Yong. Analysis of gateroad stability in relation to yield pillar size: A case study [J]. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 2017, 50(5): 1–16. DOI: 10.1007/s00603-016-1155-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    TAN Yun, YU Feng, NING Jian, ZHAO Tong. Design and construction of entry retaining wall along a gob side under hard roof stratum [J]. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 2015, 77: 115–121. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrmms.2015.03.025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    ZHAO Tong, GUO Wei, TAN Yun, YIN Yan, CAI Lai, PAN Jun. Case studies of rock bursts under complicated geological conditions during multi-seam mining at a depth of 800 m [J]. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 2018, 51: 1539–1564. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    SHREEDHARAN S, KULATILAKE P H S W. Discontinuum-equivalent continuum analysis of the stability of tunnels in a deep coal mine using the distinct element method [J]. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 2016, 49(5): 1903–1922. DOI: 10.1007/s00603-015-0885-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    KANG Hong, LV Hua, ZHANG Xiao, GAO Fu, WU Zhi, WANG Zhi. Evaluation of the ground response of a pre-driven longwall recovery room supported by concrete cribs [J]. Rock Mechanics & Rock Engineering, 2016, 49(3): 1025–1040. DOI: 10.1007/s006 03–015-0782-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    WHITTAKER B N, SINGH R N. Stability of longwall mining gate in relation to rib pillar size [J]. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 1981, 18(4): 331–334. 7–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    SHEN Bao, KING A, GUO H. Displacement, stress and seismicity in roadway roofs during mining-induced failure [J]. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 2008, 45(5): 672–688. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    LI Shu, Wang Hong-tao, Wang Qi, JIANG Bei, WANG Fu, GUO Nian, LIU Wen, REN Yao. Failure mechanism of bolting support and high-strength boltgrouting technology for deep and soft surrounding rock with high stress [J]. Journal of Central south university, 2016, 23(2): 440–448. DOI: 10.1007/s11771-016-3089-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    YUAN Liang, XUE Jun, LIU Quan, LIU Bin. Surrounding rock stability control theory and support technique in deep rock roadway for coal mine [J]. Journal of the China Coal Society, 2011, 36(4): 535–543. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    SHEN Bao. Coal mine roadway stability in soft rock: A case study [J]. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 2014, 47(6): 2225–2238. DOI: 10.1007/s00603-013-0528-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    CARRANZA-TORRES C. Analytical and numerical study of the mechanics of rockbolt reinforcement around tunnels in rock masses [J]. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 2009, 42(2): 175–228. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    KUSHWAHA A, SINGH S K, TEWARI S, SINHA A. empirical approach for designing of support system in mechanized coal pillar mining [J]. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 2010, 47(7): 1063–1078. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrmms.2010.06.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    TAN Yun, LIU Xue, NING Jian, LV Yan. In situ investigations on failure evolution of overlying strata induced by mining multiple coal seams [J]. Geotechnical Testing Journal, 2017, 40(2): 244–257. DOI: 10.1520 /GTJ20160090.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    ZHANG Zhi, SHIMADA H, QIAN De, SASAOKA T. Application of the retained gob-side gateroad in a deep underground coalmine [J]. International Journal of Mining Reclamation and Environment, 2015, 30(5): 371–379. DOI: 10.1080/17480930.2015.1093729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    FENG Xiao, ZHANG Nong, HE Feng, YANG Sen, ZHENG Xi. Implementation of a pre-tensioned, fully bonded, bolting system and its failure mechanism based on acoustic emission: A laboratorial and field study [J]. Geotechnical Testing Journal, 2017, 40(6): 978–999. DOI: 10.1520 /GTJ20160157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    ZHAO Tong, GUO Wei, TAN Yun-Liang, LU Cai, WANG Cheng. Case histories of rock bursts under complicated geological conditions [J]. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 2017. DOI: 10.1007/s10064-017-1014-7.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    CAI Mei, HE Man, LIU Dong. Rock mechanics and engineering [M]. Beijing: Science Press, 2013. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    HUANG Wan, LI Chao, ZHANG Li, YUAN Qi, ZHENG Yong, LIU Yang. In situ identification of water-permeable fractured zone in overlying composite strata [J]. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 2018, 105: 85–97. 2018.03.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    ZHANG Kai, ZHANG Gui, HOU Rong, WU Yu, ZHOU Hong. Stress evolution in roadway rock bolts during mining in a fully mechanized longwall face, and an evaluation of rock bolt support design [J]. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 2015, 48(1): 333–344. DOI: 10.1007/s00603-014-0546-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    ZHANG Guang, LIANG Sai, TAN Yun, XIE Fu, CHEN Shao, JIA Hong. Numerical modeling for longwall pillar design: A case study from a typical longwall panel in China [J]. Journal Geophysics and Engineering, 2018, 15(1): 121–134. DOI: 10.1088/1742-2140/aa9ca4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    NING Jian, WANG Jun, JIANG Jin, HU Shan, JIANG Li, LIU Xue. Estimation of crack initiation and propagation thresholds of confined brittle coal specimens based on energy dissipation theory [J]. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 2018, 51: 119–134. DOI: 10.1007/s00603-017-1317-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Central South University Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Mining and Safety EngineeringShandong University of Science and TechnologyQingdaoChina
  2. 2.College of Resources and Safety EngineeringChina University of Mining and Technology (Beijing)BeijingChina

Personalised recommendations