Advertisement

Numerical simulation of ground motion amplification in Modong area, Lushan

  • Chao Han
  • Jiashun YuEmail author
  • Wei-Zu Liu
  • Jian-Long Yuan
  • Xiao-Bo Fu
  • Xiao-Ping Hou
Article

Abstract

The April 20, 2013, Ms 7.0 Lushan Earthquake was a major earthquake that followed the Ms 8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake on May 12, 2008. Frequent earthquakes have caused heavy casualties and property loss in Western Sichuan. Earthquake disasters are often closely related to the amplification effect of ground motion. Studying the ground motion characteristics of near-surface geological structures helps to understand the distribution of potential earthquake disasters. In this study, we investigated ground motion amplification in the downtown area of Lushan using numerical simulation and aftershock data from the Lushan Earthquake. Using the Lushan earthquake aftershock data from nine seismic stations distributed in the area, the amplification effect of the sites was determined using the “reference site spectral ratio” method. The results show that the frequency of the ground motion amplification in the area was in the range 5–10 Hz, and the corresponding amplification peak was from 3 to 14. Among the study sites, the amplification (14 times) at L07 was the most prominent. To study further the amplification characteristics, shear-wave velocity models for the structures under these sites were established using passive-source Rayleigh surface-wave exploration. One-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) seismic amplification effects were simulated using horizontally propagating shear-wave modeling. Except Site L07, the 1D simulation results of each site well reflected the variation feature of the seismic amplification on the frequency band below the observed peak frequency, although the overall simulated amplification peaks were smaller than the observed results. The 2D simulation of the remarkable amplification phenomenon at L07 was in better agreement with the observation result than was the 1D simulation, indicating that the seismic amplification in the Modong area is influenced by lateral variation of the Quaternary sediments.

Keywords

Lushan earthquake seismic amplification observation and analysis numerical simulation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The catalogue information used in the study is from the China Seismological Network Center, and the topographic elevation data are from ASTER GDEM V2.0 data of NASA.

References

  1. Abraham, J. R., Smerzini, C., Paolucci. R., et al., 2016, Numerical study on basin-edge effects in the seismic response of the Gubbio valley, Central Italy: Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 14(6), 437–1459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andreson, J. G., Lee, Y., Zeng, Y., et al., 1996, Control of strong motion by the upper 30 meters: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 86(6), 1749–1759.Google Scholar
  3. Bard, P. Y., and Bouchon, M., 1985, The twodimensional resonance of sediment-filled valleys: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 75(2), 519–541.Google Scholar
  4. Barton, N., 2006, Rock quality, seismic velocity, attenuation and anisotropy: Taylor and Francis, London, pp.721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bohlen, T., and Saenger, E., 2006, Accuracy of heterogeneous staggered–grid finite–difference modeling of Rayleigh waves: Geophysics, 71(4), T109–T115.Google Scholar
  6. Borcherdt, R. D., 1970, Effects of local geology on ground motion near San Francisco Bay: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 60(1), 29–61.Google Scholar
  7. Bordoni, P., Cultrera, G., Margheriti, L., et al., 2003, A microseismic study in a low seismicity area: the 2001 site-response experiment in the Città di Castello basin (Italy): Annals of Geophysics, 46(6), 1345–1360.Google Scholar
  8. Bordoni, P., Del Monaco, F., Milana, G., et al., 2014, The seismic response at high frequency in central L’Aquila: a comparison between spectral ratios of 2D modeling and observations of the 2009 aftershocks: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 104(3), 1374–1388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brocher, T. M., 2008, Compressional and shear-wave velocity versus depth relations for common rock types in Northern California: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 98(2), 950–968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chengdu Institute of Geology, 1992, Geological map of the People’s Republic of China H48E012004 (Tianquan): National Geological Archives of China.Google Scholar
  11. Civilini, F., Pancha, A., Savage, M. K., et al., 2016, Inferring shear–velocity structure of the upper 200 m using cultural ambient noise at the Ngatamariki geothermal field, Central North Island, New Zealand: Interpretation, 4(3), SJ87–SJ101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cruzatienza, V. M., Tago, J., Sanabriagómez, J. D., et al., 2016, Long Duration of Ground Motion in the Paradigmatic Valley of Mexico: Scientific Reports, 6(38807), 1–9.Google Scholar
  13. Haines, A. J., and Yu J., 1997, Observation and synthesis of spatially-incoherent weak-motion wave-fields at Alfredton Basin, New Zealand: Bulletin of the New Zealand National Society for Earthquake Engineering, 30(1), 14–31.Google Scholar
  14. Han, C., 2016, A study of seismic ground motion amplification in Lushan county: MSc thesis, Chengdu University of Technology.Google Scholar
  15. Hartzell, S., Meremonte, M., Ramirezguzman, L., et al., 2014, Ground Motion in the Presence of Complex Topography: Earthquake and Ambient Noise Sources: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 104(1), 451–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Huang, R. Q. and Yu, J., 2003, Modelling of the effects of properties of a buried weak layer on seismic waves: Journal of Engineering Geology (in Chinese), 11(3), 312–317.Google Scholar
  17. Huang, R. Q., Wang, Y. S., Pei, X. J., et al., 2013, Characteristics of coseismic landslides triggered by the Lushan Ms7.0 Earthquake on the 20th of April, Sichuan Province, China: Journal of Southwest Jiaotong University (in Chinese), 48(4), 581–589.Google Scholar
  18. Jamison, H. S., Alexei, G. T., and Ralph, J. A., 1996, What is a reference site: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 86(6), 1733–1748.Google Scholar
  19. Kawase, H., 1996, The cause of the damage belt in Kobe: “the basin-edge effect,” constructive interference of the direct S-wave with the basin-induced diffracted/ Rayleigh waves: Seismological Research Letters, 67(5), 25–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Keceli, A., 2012, Soil parameters which can be determined with seismic velocity: Jeofizik, 16, 17–29.Google Scholar
  21. Li, Y. S., and Huang, R. Q., 2009, Earthquake damage effects of towns and reconstruction site selection in Wenchuan earthquake on May 12, 2008: Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering (in Chinese). 28(7), 1370–1376.Google Scholar
  22. Louie, J. N., 2001, Faster, Better: Shear wave velocity to 100 meters depth from refraction microtremor arrays: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 91(2), 347–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Maeda, T., Takemura, S., and Furumura, T., 2017, OpenSWPC: An open-source integrated parallel simulation code for modeling seismic wave propagation in 3D heterogeneous viscoelastic media: Earth Planets and Space, 69(102), 1–20.Google Scholar
  24. Makra, K., Chávez, F. J., Raptakis, D., et al., 2005, Parametric analysis of the seismic response of a 2D sedimentary valley: Implications for code implementations of complex site effects: Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 25(4), 303–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Martino, S., Lenti, L., Gélis, C., et al., 2015, Influence of lateral heterogeneities on strong-motion shear strains: simulations in the historical center of Rome (Italy): Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 105(5), 2604–2624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Molnar, S., Cassidy, J. F., and Dosso, S. E., 2004, Site response in Victoria, British Columbia, from spectral ratios and 1D modeling: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 94(3), 1109–1124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pancha, A., Anderson, J. G., Louie, J. N., et al., 2008, Measurement of shallow shear wave velocities at a rock site using ReMi technique: Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 28(7), 522–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pancha, A., Pullammanappallil, S., Louie, J. N., et al., 2017, Determination of 3D basin shear-wave velocity structure using ambient in an urban environment: a case study from Reno, Nevada: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 107(6), 3004–3022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pratt, T. L., Horton, J. W. Jr., Muñoz, J., et al., 2017, Amplification of earthquake ground motions in Washington DC, and implications for hazard assessments in central and eastern North America: Geophysical Research Letters, 44(12), 12150–12160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sei, A., and Syms, W., 1995, Dispersion analysis of numerical wave propagation and its computational consequences: Journal of Scientific Computing, 10(1), 1–10.Google Scholar
  31. Semblat, J. F., Duval, A. M., and Dangla, P., 2000, Numerical analysis of seismic wave amplification in Nice (France) and comparisons with experiments: Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 19(5), 347–362.Google Scholar
  32. Semblat, J. F., Duval, A. M., and Dangla, P., 2002, Seismic site effects in a deep alluvial basin: numerical analysis by the boundary element method: Computers and Geotechnics, 29(7), 573–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Singh, S. K., Mena, E., and Castro, R., 1988, Some aspects of source characteristics of the 19 September 1985 Michoacán earthquake and ground motion amplification in and near Mexico City from strong motion data: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 78(2), 451–477.Google Scholar
  34. Trifunac, M. D., 2009, The nature of site response during earthquakes, in Schanz, T., and Iankov, R., Eds., Coupled site and soil-structure interaction effects with application to seismic risk mitigation: Springer Press, Germany, 3–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wathelet, M., 2008, An improved neighborhood algorithm: parameter conditions and dynamic scaling: Geophysical Research Letters, 35, L09301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Xia, J., Miller, R. D., and Park, C. B., 1999, Estimation of near-surface velocity by inversion of Rayleigh waves: Geophysics, 64(3), 691–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Xia, J., Miller, R. D., Park, C. B., et al., 2002, Comparing shear-wave velocity profiles inverted from multichannel surface wave with borehole measurements: Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 22(3), 181–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yu, J., and Haines, A. J., 2003, The choice of reference sites for seismic ground amplification analyses: Case study at Parkway, New Zealand: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 93(2), 713–723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Yu, J., and He, Z. H., 2003, Precise modelling of SH wave propagation in subsurface multi-layer media: Journal of Seismological Research (in Chinese), 26(1), 14–19.Google Scholar
  40. Yu, J., Han, C., Wang, X. B., et al., 2017, Seismic ground motion amplification in Lushan downtown area: observation and analysis of aftershock data following the 4.20 Lushan Ms 7.0 earthquake: Progress in Geophysics (in Chinese), 32(3), 1071–1079.Google Scholar
  41. Yu, Y., Ding, H., and Liu Q., 2018, Effects of shear-wave velocity and quality factor of the Quaternary sediment on seismic effects of the Sichuan basin during the Wenchuan earthquake: Progress in Geophysics (in Chinese), 35(5), 1862–1870.Google Scholar
  42. Zhang S., Jiang C., Jiang H., et al., The April 20, 2013, Lushan, Sichuan, China, earthquake: an overview, in Wu, Z., Jiang, C., Li, X., et al., Eds., Earthquake phenomenology from the field: the April 20, 2013, Lushan earthquake: Springer Press, Singapore.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Editorial Department of APPLIED GEOPHYSICS 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chao Han
    • 1
  • Jiashun Yu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Wei-Zu Liu
    • 1
  • Jian-Long Yuan
    • 1
  • Xiao-Bo Fu
    • 1
  • Xiao-Ping Hou
    • 1
  1. 1.Chengdu University of Technology, College of GeophysicsChengduChina

Personalised recommendations