Advertisement

Chinese Geographical Science

, Volume 29, Issue 1, pp 86–99 | Cite as

Comprehensiveness and Locality: Website Marketing of World City Governments in the Era of Globalisation

  • Desheng Xue
  • Huaikuan Liu
  • Wenjiong Guo
  • Ye Liu
Article
  • 9 Downloads

Abstract

In the era of the Internet and globalisation, more and more international academics focus their attention on how city governments compete for talent, capital, and technology through website marketing to promote their economy and global status. However, 1) present research generally overlooks the importance of different types of elements in different marketing themes, 2) the combinations of marketing themes are still unknown, and 3) the presumption that the emphasised elements and specific combination of marketing themes on official websites differentiates cities requires more cases to be understood. In light of this background, this study collects homepage elements of 49 Alpha world cities’ official websites and quantitatively analyses the frequency of different types of elements, the marketing content themes, and the dissimilarity of content of Chinese Alpha world cities. The results indicate that comprehensiveness and locality appear in the process of city marketing throughout official city websites. Overall, we make the following conclusions. 1) The importance of different kinds of elements significantly differs between 49 Alpha world cities. 2) Based on various combinations of elements, the marketing contents of Alpha world cities through official websites can be categorised into six themes of history and culture, government and information, construction and environment, government and living, construction and living, and general compound. 3) The marketing elements of five Chinese Alpha world cities, including Hong Kong, Beijing, Shanghai, Taipei and Guangzhou, are different than the other 44 Alpha world cities, and Chinese cities prefer to advertise their history and culture but rarely market citizens’ activities. Moreover, Chinese cities’ marketing mostly targets natives while the other 44 Alpha cities target external groups, and the locality of world cities’ website marketing is reinforced especially on a native language edition website. This study ultimately finds that the Chinese edition websites of five Chinese cities place more focus on introducing local historical buildings, administrative services, and internal business information than the English edition websites do.

Keywords

website marketing globalisation marketing content comprehensiveness locality 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Argenbright R, 2013. Moscow on the rise: from primate city to megaregion. Geographical Review, 103(1): 20–36. doi: 10.1111/j.1931-0846.2013.00184.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ashworth G J, Voogd H, 1990. Selling the City: Marketing Approaches in Public Sector Urban Planning. London: Belhaven Press, 27–44.Google Scholar
  3. Carrasquillo C A S, 2011. Gated communities and city marketing: recent trends in Guaynabo, Puerto Rico. Cities, 28(5): 444–451. doi: 10.1016/j.cities.2011.05.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chubarov I, Brooker D, 2013. Multiple pathways to global city formation: a functional approach and review of recent evidence in China. Cities, 35: 181–189. doi: 10.1016/j.cities.2013.05.008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Deza X V, López M G, 2014. Regional concentration of knowledge- intensive business services in Europe. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 32(6): 1036–1058. doi: 10.1068/c11171rCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dinardi C, 2017. Cities for sale: contesting city branding and cultural policies in Buenos Aires. Urban Studies, 54(1): 85–101. doi: 10.1177/0042098015604079CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gao Jing, Qi Tianfeng, Zhang Yonggang, 2007. An empirical analysis on the marketing functions of local governments’ official tourism websites. Geography and Geo-Information Science, 23(2): 104–108. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  8. Goldman M, 2011. Speculative urbanism and the making of the next world city. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 35(3): 555–581. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2427.2010.01001.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Grodach C, 2009. Urban branding: an analysis of city homepage imagery. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 26(3): 181–197.Google Scholar
  10. Haines C, 2011. Cracks in the façade: landscapes of hope and desire in Dubai. In: Roy A, Ong A (eds). Worlding Cities: Asian Experiments and the Art of Being Global. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 160–181. doi: 10.1002/9781444346800.ch6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hill R C, Kim J W, 2000. Global cities and developmental states: New York, Tokyo and Seoul. Urban Studies, 37(12): 2167–2195. doi: 10.1080/00420980020002760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Johansson O, Cornebise, M, 2010. Place branding goes to the neighbourhood: the case of pseudo-Swedish Andersonville. Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography, 92(3): 187–204. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-0467.2010.00347.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kavaratzis M, Kalandides A, 2015. Rethinking the place brand: the interactive formation of place brands and the role of participatory place branding. Environment & Planning A, 47(6): 1368–1382. doi: 10.1177/0308518X15594918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kotler P, Haider D H, Rein I, 1993. Marketing Places: Attracting Investment, Industry and Tourism to Cities, States and Nations. New York: The Free Press, 21–45.Google Scholar
  15. Lee A H J, Wall G, Kovacs J F, 2015. Creative food clusters and rural development through place branding: culinary tourism initiatives in Stratford and Muskoka, Ontario, Canada. Journal of Rural Studies, 39: 133–144. doi: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2015.05.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lefebvre H, 2006. The urban revolution. In: Brenner N, Keil R (eds). The Global Cities Reader. Abingdon & New York: Routledge, 407–413.Google Scholar
  17. Liu X J, Derudder B, Wu K, 2016. Measuring polycentric urban development in China: an intercity transportation network perspective. Regional Studies, 50(8): 1302–1315. doi: 10.1080/00343404.2015.1004535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ma H T, Zhang F F, Liu Y, 2018. Transnational elites enhance the connectivity of Chinese cities in the world city network. Environment and Planning A, 50(4): 749–751. doi: 10.1177/0308518X18761395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mathews A J, Patton M T, 2016. Exploring place marketing by American microbreweries: neolocal expressions of ethnicity and race. Journal of Cultural Geography, 33(3): 275–309. doi: 10.1080/08873631.2016.1145406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Olds K, Yeung H, 2004. Pathways to global city formation: a view from the developmental city-state of Singapore. Review of International Political Economy, 11(3): 489–521. doi: 10.1080/0969229042000252873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Paganoni M C, 2012. City branding and social inclusion in the glocal city. Mobilities, 7(1): 13–31. doi: 10.1080/17450101.2012.631809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Terlouw K, Denkers R, 2011. The geography of regional websites: regional representation and regional structure. Geoforum, 42(5): 578–591. doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2011.05.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Urban F, 2002. Small town, big website?: cities and their representation on the Internet. Cities, 19(1): 49–59. doi: 10.1016/S0264-2751(01)00045-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Wang Bo, Zhen Feng, 2017. Impacts of city’s characteristics on city’s importance in the virtual world: an empirical analysis based on Internet news media. Scientia Geographica Sinica, 37(8): 1127–1134. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  25. Wong T C, Liu R, 2017. Developmental urbanism, city image branding and the “Right to the City” in transitional China. Urban Policy and Research, 35(2): 210–223. doi: 10.1080/08111146.2015.1122587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wu F L, 2016. State dominance in urban redevelopment: beyond gentrification in urban China. Urban Affairs Review, 52(5): 631–658. doi: 10.1177/1078087415612930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Yeoh B S A, 2005. The global cultural city? Spatial imagineering and politics in the (multi)cultural marketplaces of South-east Asia. Urban Studies, 42(5–6): 945–958. doi: 10.1080/00420980500107201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Zhang Jingxiang, Wang Xu, 2012. The scaling up of cities in the process of endogenous city marketing-a case study of Xuyi county. Urban Planning Forum, (2): 33–38. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  29. Zhang Weiya, Tao Zhuomin, Cai Bifan et al., 2013. Study on heritage websites’ persuasive route based on structural equation model: a case study of Chinese world heritage official websites. Geographical Research, 32(9): 1747–1760. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  30. Zhou L J, Wang T, 2014. Social media: a new vehicle for city marketing in China. Cities, 37: 27–32. doi: 10.1016/j.cities.2013.11.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Zhu H, Qian J X, Gao Y, 2011. Globalisation and the production of city image in Guangzhou’s metro station advertisements. Cities, 28(3): 221–229. doi: 10.1016/j.cities.2010.12.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press and Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, CAS and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Desheng Xue
    • 1
  • Huaikuan Liu
    • 1
  • Wenjiong Guo
    • 2
  • Ye Liu
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Geography and PlanningSun Yat-sen UniversityGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.Collaboration and Innovation Center of Coordinating Urban and Rural in Shanxi ProvinceTaiyuan Normal UniversityJinzhongChina

Personalised recommendations