Signal, Image and Video Processing

, Volume 12, Issue 6, pp 1173–1180 | Cite as

Image de-fencing using histograms of oriented gradients

  • Madiha KhalidEmail author
  • Muhammad Murtaza Yousaf
  • Kashif Murtaza
  • Syed Mansoor Sarwar
Original Paper


Image de-fencing is often used by digital photographers to remove regular or near-regular fence-like patterns from an image. The goal of image de-fencing is to remove a fence object from an image in such a seamless way that it appears as if the fence never existed in the image. This task is mainly challenging due to a wide range intra-class variation of fence, complexity of background, and common occlusions. We present a novel image de-fencing technique to automatically detect fences of regular and irregular patterns in an image. We use a data-driven approach that detects a fence using encoded images as feature descriptors. We use a variant of the histograms of oriented gradients (HOG) descriptor for feature representation. We modify the conventional HOG descriptor to represent each pixel rather than representing a full patch. We evaluated our algorithm on 41 different images obtained from various sources on the Internet based on a well-defined selection criteria. Our evaluation shows that the proposed algorithm is capable of detecting a fence object in a given image with more than 98% accuracy and 87% precision.


Image de-fencing Histograms of oriented gradients Supervised learning and classification Object detection Image inpainting Fence removal 

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (jpg 54 KB)
11760_2018_1266_MOESM2_ESM.jpg (121 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (jpg 120 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Madiha Khalid
    • 1
    Email author
  • Muhammad Murtaza Yousaf
    • 1
  • Kashif Murtaza
    • 1
  • Syed Mansoor Sarwar
    • 1
  1. 1.Punjab University College of Information TechnologyUniversity of the PunjabLahorePakistan

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