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Archaeologies

, Volume 15, Issue 3, pp 536–569 | Cite as

Pursuing Social Justice Through Collaborative Archaeologies in Aboriginal Australia

  • C. SmithEmail author
  • H. Burke
  • J. Ralph
  • K. Pollard
  • A. Gorman
  • C. Wilson
  • S. Hemming
  • D. Rigney
  • D. Wesley
  • M. Morrison
  • D. McNaughton
  • I. Domingo
  • I. Moffat
  • A. Roberts
  • J. Koolmatrie
  • J. Willika
  • B. Pamkal
  • G. Jackson
Research

Abstract

This paper identifies the emergence of the pursuit of social justice as a core focus of collaborative archaeologies in Aboriginal Australia. A wide range of case studies are examined, especially in relation to efforts to redress a ‘deep colonisation’ that silences Indigenous histories and fails to engage with Indigenous voices or experiences. This research is part of a wider global movement of community-based, activist and engaged archaeology that encompasses two principle approaches to social justice: the redistribution of resources and goods and the politics of recognition. It is informed by a more general concern with human rights, structural violence and ethical globalisation. In Australia, social justice archaeologies are both confronting, in terms of frontier violence, intentional structural violence and racism, but also inspirational/aspirational, in terms of Aboriginal nation building and the cultural facilitation of Aboriginal research ethics. The development of collaborative projects between Indigenous peoples and (Indigenous and non-Indigenous) archaeologists can be challenging. Indigenous archaeologists face particular challenges, including balancing sometimes conflicting expectations from communities with the demands of the profession. For non-Indigenous archaeologists, the challenge lies in the shift from working with Indigenous peoples to working for Indigenous peoples as part of a process in which social justice outcomes are a product, rather than a by-product, of archaeological research.

Keywords

Indigenous archaeology Aboriginal Australia Social justice Collaborative archaeologies Structural violence Everyday racism 

Résumé

Cet article identifie l’émergence d’une aspiration à la justice sociale en tant que finalité essentielle des archéologies collaboratives dans l’Australie Aborigène. Une grande variété d’études de cas sont examinées, notamment relativement aux efforts visant à corriger une « colonisation profonde » qui réduit au silence les histoires indigènes et échoue à capter et comprendre les voix ou expériences indigènes. Cette recherche fait partie d’un mouvement international plus vaste d’une archéologie communautaire, militante et engagée englobant les deux approches principales de la justice sociale identifiées par Fraser (2009): la redistribution des ressources et des biens et la politique de reconnaissance. Il est inspiré par une préoccupation plus générale portant sur les droits humains, la violence structurelle et la mondialisation éthique. En Australie, les archéologies de la justice sociale se définissent tant par la confrontation (en termes de violence frontalière, de violence structurelle intentionnelle et de racisme intentionnel) que par l’inspiration/l’aspiration en termes de construction d’une nation aborigène et de la facilitation culturelle d’une éthique de recherche aborigène. Le développement de projets collaboratifs entre les peuples indigènes et les archéologues (indigènes et non-indigènes) peut présenter des difficultés. Les archéologues indigènes font face à un défi particulier, qui est parfois de parvenir à un équilibre entre les attentes contradictoires des communautés et les impératifs de la profession. Pour les archéologues non-indigènes, la difficulté réside dans le fait de passer d’une collaboration avec les peuples indigènes à un travail au service de ces derniers dans le cadre d’un processus pour lequel les résultats en matière de justice sociale sont un produit, plutôt qu’un sous-produit de la recherche archéologique.

Resumen

Este artículo identifica el surgimiento de la búsqueda de la justicia social como un foco central de las arqueologías colaborativas en la Australia aborigen. Se examina una amplia gama de estudios de casos, especialmente en relación con los esfuerzos para reparar una “colonización profunda” que silencia las historias indígenas y no logra relacionarse con las voces o experiencias indígenas. Esta investigación es parte de un movimiento global más amplio de arqueología comunitaria, activista y comprometida que abarca los dos enfoques principales para la justicia social identificados por Fraser (2009): la redistribución de recursos y bienes y las políticas de reconocimiento. Está informado por una preocupación más general con los derechos humanos, la violencia estructural y la globalización ética. En Australia, las arqueologías de justicia social son confrontativas (en términos de violencia fronteriza, violencia estructural intencional y racismo intencional) e inspiradoras/aspiracionales en términos de la construcción de la nación aborigen y la facilitación cultural de la ética de la investigación aborigen. El desarrollo de proyectos de colaboración entre los pueblos indígenas y los arqueólogos (indígenas y no indígenas) puede ser un desafío. Los arqueólogos indígenas enfrentan un desafío particular, el de equilibrar las expectativas a veces conflictivas de las comunidades con las demandas de la profesión. Para los arqueólogos no indígenas, el desafío radica en pasar de trabajar con los pueblos indígenas a trabajar para los pueblos indígenas como parte de un proceso en el que los resultados de la justicia social son un producto, más que un subproducto, de la investigación arqueológica.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank all the Aboriginal people with whom we have worked over many years, including respected and much-loved Elders who have passed away. We especially thank Nell Brown and Guy Rankin, of Barunga; Rachael Kendino (Willika) of Manyallaluk; Wendy Willika, of Werenbun; Vince Copley snr and junior and Vincent Branson, of Ngadjuri lands; and the Elders and Custodians, past and present, from central and western Cape York Peninsula, Queensland, and the River Murray and Mallee Aboriginal community, South Australia. The research outlined in the paper has been funded by a number of bodies, but particularly the Australian Research Council. We acknowledge support from Barunga Local Authority, the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, the Commonwealth Scholarship Commission, the ‘Goyder Institute for Water Research’, Homerton College and the Ian Potter Foundation. Our research has been funded by the following Australian Research Council grants: DP190102219; DP190102060; DP1094869; DP1094869; DP0453101; DE170101447; LP170100050; LP170100479; LP100100876; LP140100376; LP130100131; DI100100297; SR120100005.

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Copyright information

© World Archaeological Congress 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Smith
    • 1
    Email author
  • H. Burke
    • 1
  • J. Ralph
    • 1
  • K. Pollard
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. Gorman
    • 1
  • C. Wilson
    • 1
    • 3
  • S. Hemming
    • 3
    • 4
  • D. Rigney
    • 3
    • 4
  • D. Wesley
    • 1
  • M. Morrison
    • 1
  • D. McNaughton
    • 1
  • I. Domingo
    • 1
    • 5
  • I. Moffat
    • 1
  • A. Roberts
    • 1
  • J. Koolmatrie
    • 1
  • J. Willika
    • 1
    • 6
  • B. Pamkal
    • 1
    • 6
  • G. Jackson
    • 1
  1. 1.Flinders UniversityAdelaideAustralia
  2. 2.Charles Darwin UniversityDarwinAustralia
  3. 3.Ngarrindjeri Regional AuthorityMurray BridgeAustralia
  4. 4.University of Technology SydneySydneyAustralia
  5. 5.Universitat de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  6. 6.Jawoyn Association Aboriginal CorporationKatherineAustralia

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