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Dimensionale Ansätze zur Diagnostik von antisozialer Persönlichkeitsstörung und Psychopathie

  • Dahlnym Yoon
  • Jonas Krüppel
  • Andreas Mokros
  • Johannes Zimmermann
Übersicht
  • 198 Downloads

Zusammenfassung

Im Bereich der Diagnostik von Persönlichkeitsstörungen zeichnet sich in jüngster Vergangenheit eine Entwicklung von kategorialen hin zu dimensionalen Ansätzen ab. Ein dimensionaler Ansatz ermöglicht eine Erfassung von Persönlichkeitsmerkmalen als kontinuierliche Variablen sowie eine empirisch begründete Beschreibung der Persönlichkeitsstruktur. Im Zuge dessen veränderte sich auch die Beurteilung des klassischen Psychopathiekonstrukts nach Hare, insofern als dass von der Beschreibung der Psychopathen als einer diskreten Klasse von Personen abgeraten wurde. Mittlerweile existieren im Bereich der Forschung zu psychopathischen Persönlichkeitseigenschaften verschiedene Konzeptualisierungen, von denen einige neben Unaufrichtigkeit, Gemütslosigkeit und sozialer Abweichung auch allgemeine oder funktionale Persönlichkeitsmerkmale integrieren. Diese Überlegungen fanden ihren Weg in das alternative Modell für Persönlichkeitsstörungen im Teil III des DSM-5, welches neuere Konzeptualisierungen der antisozialen Persönlichkeitsstörung und der Psychopathie (z. B. bezüglich der Merkmale „furchtlose Dominanz“ oder „Kühnheit“) berücksichtigt. Im vorliegenden Artikel werden diese verschiedenen Konzeptionalisierungen und Forschungsergebnisse zur latenten Struktur vorgestellt. Darüber hinaus wird ein Überblick zu den Erhebungsinstrumenten gegeben. Dabei wird insbesondere auf die Entwicklung indirekter Verfahren eingegangen, die eine Erfassung von antisozialen und psychopathischen Persönlichkeitseigenschaften auf Grundlage von Reaktionszeitmessungen ermöglichen sollen.

Schlüsselwörter

Antisoziale Persönlichkeitsstörung Dimensionale Diagnostik DSM-5 FFM Psychopathie TriPM 

Dimensional approaches to the assessment of antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy

Abstract

In the field of diagnostics of personality disorders, a development from categorical towards dimensional approaches has recently become apparent. A dimensional approach relies on the assessment of personality traits in terms of continuous variables and also entails an evidence-based description of an individual’s configuration of personality traits. Similarly, the assessment of the psychopathy construct according to Hare’s classical concept has also changed, thereby replacing the notion of psychopaths as a discrete subgroup of individuals. Meanwhile, there are various conceptualizations of psychopathic personality traits. Some of these conceptualizations also include general or even functional personality traits, apart from deceitfulness, callous unemotional traits, and social deviance. These considerations also found their way into the alternative model for the diagnosis of personality disorders in part III of the DSM-5. More specifically, the alternative model entails changes with respect to antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy (e. g., regarding aspects, such as fearless dominance or boldness). The current article provides a review of the various conceptualizations and research findings on latent structure. Moreover, the article provides an overview of assessment instruments. This overview includes a reference to the development of indirect measures that are intended to allow psychopathic traits to be measured based on reaction times.

Keywords

Antisocial personality disorder Dimensional diagnostics DSM-5 FFM Psychopathy TriPM 

Notes

Interessenkonflikt

D. Yoon, J. Krüppel, A. Mokros und J. Zimmermann geben an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dahlnym Yoon
    • 1
  • Jonas Krüppel
    • 1
  • Andreas Mokros
    • 1
  • Johannes Zimmermann
    • 2
  1. 1.Institut für Psychologie, Lehrgebiet Persönlichkeitspsychologie, Diagnostik & BeratungFernUniversität in HagenHagenDeutschland
  2. 2.Psychologische Hochschule BerlinBerlinDeutschland

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