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General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery

, Volume 67, Issue 3, pp 271–276 | Cite as

Etiology of aortic dissection

  • Koichi AkutsuEmail author
Current Topics Review Article
  • 31 Downloads

Abstract

We discuss the etiology of aortic dissection (AD) from various points of view. The development of AD requires two pathological conditions: medial degeneration and mechanical wall stress. First, histopathological findings of medial degeneration are hypothesized to be due to a loss of elastic fibers and interconnecting elastic fibers. Damage to the vasa vasorum plays a key role in creating an entry site. The clinical causes of medial degeneration include hypertension, aortic aneurysms, obstructive sleep apnea, and connective tissue disorders. Second, mechanical wall stress is supposedly induced by shear stress caused by blood flow, together with hypertension and aortic root movement. Further investigation is necessary in the search for mechanisms responsible for medial degeneration prior to AD development.

Keywords

Aortic dissection Etiology Medial degeneration Shear wall stress Connective tissue disorder Vasa vasorum 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author declares no competing financial interests.

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Copyright information

© The Japanese Association for Thoracic Surgery 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Vascular Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Kawasaki Aortic CenterKawasaki Saiwai HospitalKawasakiJapan

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