Differential selective hypothermic intercostal artery perfusion: a new method to probe spinal cord perfusion during thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair
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To prevent paraplegia in patients undergoing thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair, the importance of preoperative identification of the Adamkiewicz artery and reconstruction of critical intercostal artery have been advocated. Conversely, significance of collateral network for spinal cord perfusion has been recognized. We invented a new system consisting of a direct monitoring of cerebrospinal fluid temperature (CSFT) and differential selective hypothermic intercostal artery perfusion (D-HIAP).
After exposing a critical intercostal artery, a 10-mm prosthetic graft was anastomosed in an end to side fashion. A balloon-tipped catheter was inserted into the graft to perfuse with 15 °C blood. Neighboring intercostal arteries were also perfused in the same fashion. Serial monitoring of CSFT was performed. Between January 2011 and January 2015, D-HIAP was employed in 50 patients with Adamkiewicz artery that located within a reconstructed area.
Significant CSFT drop was recorded after initiation of D-HIAP in 42 (84%) patients. Of those, 34 (68%) patients showed significantly lowered CSFT with D-HIAP into a single critical intercostal artery. Perfusion into plural intercostal arteries was necessary for CSFT drop in 2 cases (4%), and plural intercostal artery perfusion further enhanced CSFT drop that had been modestly achieved by single intercostal artery perfusion in 6 cases (12%). Eight (16%) patients did not exhibit a significant drop in CSFT even when D-HIAP was employed for the critical and neighboring intercostal arteries.
The detection of a disparity in temperature between the intrathecal space and blood generated by D-HIAP revealed individual variability in CSFT changes, which may imply a complexity in spinal cord perfusion. Intraoperative D-HIAP may help to identify a major blood supply for spinal cord perfusion and underlying collateral network.
KeywordsThoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm Spinal cord injury Hypothermic perfusion
The authors appreciate Dr. Konosuke Sasaki for his excellent assistance in statistical analyses.
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