General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery

, Volume 61, Issue 8, pp 435–447 | Cite as

Clinical classification of cardiovascular tumors and tumor-like lesions, and its incidences

  • Jun AmanoEmail author
  • Jun Nakayama
  • Yasuo Yoshimura
  • Uichi Ikeda
Current Topics Review Article


Tumors of the heart and the great vessels are very rare disease, and there are many disorders such as tumors originated from the heart and great vessels, metastatic tumors, and tumor-like lesions which do not fit into the usual concept of tumor or neoplasm; thus, it is very difficult to classify these tumors. We proposed a new classification of cardiovascular tumors for clinical use based on the accumulated biological analyses and clinical data of the reported literatures and our own study as benign tumors, malignant tumors, ectopic hyperplasia/ectopic tumors/others, and tumors of great vessels, with reference to the series of Atlas of tumor pathology of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology and the recent World Health Organization classification of cardiac tumors issued in 2004. More than 50 disorders have been reported as tumors originated from the cardiovascular system, and various metastatic tumors from nearby organs, distant lesions, and intravascular extension tumors to the heart were reported. Based on the new classification, we reviewed epidemiology and incidence of cardiovascular tumors. Metastatic tumors are more frequent than tumors originated from the heart and great vessels, and cardiac myxoma is the most frequent tumors in all cardiac tumors.


Cardiac tumor Metastatic cardiac tumors Classification Incidence Cardiac myxoma 



This work was partially supported by the Japan Society for the promotion of science, Grant-in-aid for scientific research (C) 21591793. We wish to acknowledge the assistance of Dr. Yuko Wada and Mrs. Michie Futatsugi for data collection and analyses.

Conflict of interest


Open Access

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.


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© The Author(s) 2013

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jun Amano
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jun Nakayama
    • 2
  • Yasuo Yoshimura
    • 3
  • Uichi Ikeda
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Cardiovascular SurgeryShinshu University School of MedicineMatsumotoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Molecular PathologyShinshu University Graduate School of MedicineMatsumotoJapan
  3. 3.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryShinshu University School of MedicineMatsumotoJapan
  4. 4.Department of Cardiovascular MedicineShinshu University School of MedicineMatsumotoJapan

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