Advertisement

Effective customer journey design: consumers’ conception, measurement, and consequences

  • Christina Kuehnl
  • Danijel Jozic
  • Christian Homburg
Original Empirical Research
  • 158 Downloads

Abstract

Recently, practitioners have begun appraising an effective customer journey design (CJD) as an important source of customer value in increasingly complex and digitalized consumer markets. Research, however, has neither investigated what constitutes the effectiveness of CJD from a consumer perspective nor empirically tested how it affects important variables of consumer behavior. The authors define an effective CJD as the extent to which consumers perceive multiple brand-owned touchpoints as designed in a thematically cohesive, consistent, and context-sensitive way. Analyzing consumer data from studies in two countries (4814 consumers in total), they provide evidence of the positive influence of an effective CJD on customer loyalty through brand attitude—over and above the effects of brand experience. Importantly, an effective CJD more strongly influences utilitarian brand attitudes, while brand experience more strongly affects hedonic brand attitudes. These underlying mechanisms are also prevalent when testing for the contingency factors services versus goods, perceived switching costs, and brand involvement.

Keywords

Effective customer journey design Touchpoints Customer journey Brand experience Scale development 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Michael Paul, Bernd Schmitt, and Peter Verhoef for their helpful comments on a previous version of the paper. The valuable discussions with Ajay Kohli and the participants of the JAMS Thought Leaders’ Conference and EMAC 2017 are also gratefully acknowledged. Finally, the authors thank the review team for the constructive suggestions.

Supplementary material

11747_2018_625_MOESM1_ESM.docx (22 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 22.1 kb)

References

  1. Anderl, E., Becker, I., von Wangenheim, F., & Schumann, J. H. (2016). Mapping the customer journey: Lessons learned from graph-based online attribution modeling. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 33(3), 457–474.Google Scholar
  2. Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (2012). Specification, evaluation, and interpretation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 40(1), 8–34.Google Scholar
  3. Batra, R., & Keller, K. L. (2016). Integrating marketing communications: New findings, new lessons, and new ideas. Journal of Marketing, 80(6), 122–145.Google Scholar
  4. Baxendale, S., Macdonald, E. K., & Wilson, H. N. (2015). The impact of different touchpoints on brand consideration. Journal of Retailing, 91(2), 235–253.Google Scholar
  5. Berry, L. L., Wall, E. A., & Carbone, L. P. (2006). Service clues and customer assessment of the service experience: Lessons from marketing. Academy of Management Perspectives, 20(2), 43–57.Google Scholar
  6. Blocker, C. P., Flint, D. J., Myers, M. B., & Slater, S. F. (2011). Proactive customer orientation and its role for creating customer value in global markets. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 39(2), 216–233.Google Scholar
  7. Brakus, J. J., Schmitt, B. H., & Zarantonello, L. (2009). Brand experience: What is it? How is it measured? Does it affect loyalty? Journal of Marketing, 73(3), 52–68.Google Scholar
  8. Burnham, T. A., Frels, J. K., & Mahajan, V. (2003). Consumer switching costs: A typology, antecedents, and consequences. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 31(2), 109–126.Google Scholar
  9. Calder, B. J., Isaac, M. S., & Malthouse, E. C. (2016). How to capture consumer experiences: A context-specific approach to measuring engagement: Predicting consumer behavior across qualitatively different experiences. Journal of Advertising Research, 56(1), 39–352.Google Scholar
  10. Castaño, R., Sujan, M., Kacker, M., & Sujan, H. (2008). Managing consumer uncertainty in the adoption of new products: Temporal distance and mental simulation. Journal of Marketing Research, 45(3), 320–336.Google Scholar
  11. Churchill, G. A., Jr. (1979). A paradigm for developing better measures of marketing constructs. Journal of Marketing Research, 16(1), 64–73.Google Scholar
  12. Dick, A. S., & Basu, K. (1994). Customer loyalty: Toward an integrated conceptual framework. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 22(2), 99–113.Google Scholar
  13. Duncan, T., & Moriarty, S. (2006). How integrated marketing communication's “touchpoints” can operationalize the service-dominant logic. In R. F. Lusch & S. L. Vargo (Eds.), The service-dominant logic of marketing: Dialog, debate, and directions (pp. 236–249). Armonk: M.E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
  14. Emrich, O., & Verhoef, P. C. (2015). The impact of a homogenous versus a prototypical web design on online retail patronage for multichannel providers. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 32(4), 363–374.Google Scholar
  15. Epp, A. M., & Price, L. L. (2011). Designing solutions around customer network identity goals. Journal of Marketing, 75(2), 36–54.Google Scholar
  16. Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50.Google Scholar
  17. Gerbing, D. W., & Anderson, J. C. (1988). An updated paradigm for scale development incorporating unidimensionality and its assessment. Journal of Marketing Research, 25(2), 186–192.Google Scholar
  18. Grewal, D., Levy, M., & Kumar, V. (2009). Customer experience management in retailing: An organizing framework. Journal of Retailing, 85(1), 1–14.Google Scholar
  19. Grohmann, B., Spangenberg, E. R., & Sprott, D. E. (2007). The influence of tactile input on the evaluation of retail product offerings. Journal of Retailing, 83(2), 237–245.Google Scholar
  20. Gruber, M., De Leon, N., George, G., & Thompson, P. (2015). Managing by design. Academy of Management Journal, 58(1), 1–7.Google Scholar
  21. Guo, L., Gruen, T. W., & Tang, C. (2017). Seeing relationships through the lens of psychological contracts: The structure of consumer service relationships. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 45(3), 357–376.Google Scholar
  22. Hamilton, R. (2016). Consumer-based strategy: Using multiple methods to generate consumer insights that inform strategy. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 44(3), 281–285.Google Scholar
  23. Hamilton, R. W., & Thompson, D. V. (2007). Is there a substitute for direct experience? Comparing consumers' preferences after direct and indirect product experiences. Journal of Consumer Research, 34(4), 546–555.Google Scholar
  24. Homburg, C., Schwemmle, M., & Kuehnl, C. (2015). New product design: Concept, measurement, and consequences. Journal of Marketing, 79(3), 41–56.Google Scholar
  25. Homburg, C., Jozic, D., & Kuehnl, C. (2017). Customer experience management: Toward implementing an evolving marketing concept. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 45(3), 377–401.Google Scholar
  26. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1995). Evaluating model fit. In R. H. Hoyle (Ed.), Structural equation modeling. Concepts, issues, and application (pp. 76–99). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  27. Hulland, J., Baumgartner, H., & Smith, K. M. (2018). Marketing survey research best practices: Evidence and recommendations from a review of JAMS articles. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 46(1), 92–108.Google Scholar
  28. Jones, M. A., Mothersbaugh, D. L., & Beatty, S. E. (2000). Switching barriers and repurchase intentions in services. Journal of Retailing, 76(2), 259–274.Google Scholar
  29. Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow. New York: Farra, Straus, and Giroux.Google Scholar
  30. Keller, K. L. (1993). Conceptualizing, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity. Journal of Marketing, 57(1), 1–22.Google Scholar
  31. Keller, K. L., & Lehmann, D. R. (2006). Brands and branding: Research findings and future priorities. Marketing Science, 25(6), 740–759.Google Scholar
  32. Kent, R. J., & Allen, C. T. (1994). Competitive interference effects in consumer memory for advertising: The role of brand familiarity. Journal of Marketing, 58(3), 97–105.Google Scholar
  33. Lemke, F., Clark, M., & Wilson, H. (2011). Customer experience quality: An exploration in business and consumer contexts using repertory grid technique. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 39(6), 846–869.Google Scholar
  34. Lemon, K. N., & Verhoef, P. C. (2016). Understanding customer experience throughout the customer journey. Journal of Marketing, 80(6), 69–96.Google Scholar
  35. Li, H. A., & Kannan, P. K. (2014). Attributing conversions in a multichannel online marketing environment: An empirical model and a field experiment. Journal of Marketing Research, 51(1), 40–56.Google Scholar
  36. Liberman, N., & Trope, Y. (1998). The role of feasibility and desirability considerations in near and distant future decisions: A test of temporal construal theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(1), 5–18.Google Scholar
  37. Liberman, N., Trope, Y., & Wakslak, C. (2007). Construal level theory and consumer behavior. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 17(2), 113–117.Google Scholar
  38. Lindell, M. K., & Whitney, D. J. (2001). Accounting for common method variance in cross-sectional research designs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(1), 114–121.Google Scholar
  39. Lovett, M., Peres, R., & Shachar, R. (2014). A data set of brands and their characteristics. Marketing Science, 33(4), 609–617.Google Scholar
  40. Maechler, N., Neher, K., & Park, R. (2016). From touchpoints to journeys: The competitive edge in seeing the world through the customer’s eyes. McKinsey Insights, 1(March), 14–23.Google Scholar
  41. Malär, L., Krohmer, H., Hoyer, W. D., & Nyffenegger, B. (2011). Emotional brand attachment and brand personality: The relative importance of the actual and the ideal self. Journal of Marketing, 75(4), 35–52.Google Scholar
  42. Malär, L., Nyffenegger, B., Krohmer, H., & Hoyer, W. D. (2012). Implementing an intended brand personality: A dyadic perspective. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 40(5), 728–744.Google Scholar
  43. Mano, H., & Oliver, R. L. (1993). Assessing the dimensionality and structure of the consumption experience: Evaluation, feeling, and satisfaction. Journal of Consumer Research, 20(3), 451–466.Google Scholar
  44. Montoya-Weiss, M. M., Voss, G. B., & Grewal, D. (2003). Determinants of online channel use and overall satisfaction with a relational, multichannel service provider. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 31(4), 448–458.Google Scholar
  45. Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  46. Oh, L.-B., Teo, H.-H., & Sambamurthy, V. (2012). The effects of retail channel integration through the use of information technologies on firm performance. Journal of Operations Management, 30(5), 368–381.Google Scholar
  47. Panagopoulos, N. G., Rapp, A. A., & Ogilvie, J. L. (2017). Salesperson solution involvement and sales performance: The contingent role of supplier firm and customer–supplier relationship characteristics. Journal of Marketing, 81(4), 144–164.Google Scholar
  48. Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L. (1985). A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research. Journal of Marketing, 49(4), 41–50.Google Scholar
  49. Park, C. W., Milberg, S., & Lawson, R. (1991). Evaluation of brand extensions: The role of product feature similarity and brand concept consistency. Journal of Consumer Research, 18(2), 185–193.Google Scholar
  50. Patrício, L., Fisk, R. P., & Falcão e Cunha, J. (2008). Designing multi-interface service experiences: The service experience blueprint. Journal of Service Research, 10(4), 318–334.Google Scholar
  51. Patrício, L., Fisk, R. P., & Constantine, L. (2011). Multilevel service design: From customer value constellation to service experience blueprinting. Journal of Service Research, 10(4), 318–334.Google Scholar
  52. Payne, A., & Frow, P. (2005). A strategic framework for customer relationship management. Journal of Marketing, 69(4), 167–176.Google Scholar
  53. Payne, A., Storbacka, K., & Frow, P. (2008). Managing the co-creation of value. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 36(1), 83–96.Google Scholar
  54. Pine, B. J., & Gilmore, J. H. (1998). Welcome to the experience economy. Harvard Business Review, 76(4), 97–105.Google Scholar
  55. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879–903.Google Scholar
  56. Puccinelli, N. M., Goodstein, R. C., Grewal, D., Price, R., Raghubir, P., & Stewart, D. (2009). Customer experience management in retailing: Understanding the buying process. Journal of Retailing, 85(1), 15–30.Google Scholar
  57. Richardson, A. (2010). Using customer journey maps to improve customer experience. Harvard Business Review, 15(1), 2–5.Google Scholar
  58. Rossiter, J. R. (2002). The C-OAR-SE procedure for scale development in marketing. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 19(4), 305–335.Google Scholar
  59. Schmitt, B. (2003). Customer experience management: A revolutionary approach to connecting with your customers. Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  60. Seiders, K., Voss, G. B., Godfrey, A. L., & Grewal, D. (2007). SERVCON: Development and validation of a multidimensional service convenience scale. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 35(1), 144–156.Google Scholar
  61. Simoes, C., Dibb, S., & Fisk, R. P. (2005). Managing corporate identity: An internal perspective. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 33(2), 153–168.Google Scholar
  62. Srinivasan, S., Rutz, O. J., & Pauwels, K. (2016). Paths to and off purchase: Quantifying the impact of traditional marketing and online consumer activity. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 44(4), 440–453.Google Scholar
  63. Steenkamp, J. B. E., & Baumgartner, H. (1998). Assessing measurement invariance in cross-national consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 25(1), 78–90.Google Scholar
  64. Tax, S. S., McCutcheon, D., & Wilkinson, I. F. (2013). The service delivery network (SDN): A customer-centric perspective of the customer journey. Journal of Service Research, 16(4), 454–470.Google Scholar
  65. Teixeira, J., Patrício, L., Nunes, N. J., Nóbrega, L., Fisk, R. P., & Constantine, L. (2012). Customer experience modeling: From customer experience to service design. Journal of Service Management, 23(3), 362–376.Google Scholar
  66. Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2003). Temporal construal. Psychological Review, 110(3), 403–421.Google Scholar
  67. Trope, Y., Liberman, N., & Wakslak, C. (2007). Construal levels and psychological distance: Effects on representation, prediction, evaluation, and behavior. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 17(2), 83–95.Google Scholar
  68. Verhoef, P. C., Lemon, K. N., Parasuraman, A., Roggeveen, A., Tsiros, M., & Schlesinger, L. A. (2009). Customer experience creation: Determinants, dynamics and management strategies. Journal of Retailing, 85(1), 31–41.Google Scholar
  69. Vomberg, A., Homburg, C., & Bornemann, T. (2015). Talented people and strong brands: The contribution of human capital and brand equity to firm value. Strategic Management Journal, 36(13), 2122–2131.Google Scholar
  70. Voss, K. E., Spangenberg, E. R., & Grohmann, B. (2003). Measuring the hedonic and utilitarian dimensions of consumer attitude. Journal of Marketing Research, 40(4), 310–320.Google Scholar
  71. Wang, G., & Netemeyer, R. G. (2002). The effects of job autonomy, customer demandingness, and trait competitiveness on salesperson learning, self-efficacy, and performance. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 30(3), 217–228.Google Scholar
  72. Whan Park, C., MacInnis, D. J., Priester, J., Eisingerich, A. B., & Iacobucci, D. (2010). Brand attachment and brand attitude strength: Conceptual and empirical differentiation of two critical brand equity drivers. Journal of Marketing, 74(6), 1–17.Google Scholar
  73. Wirtz, J., Xiao, P., Chiang, J., & Malhotra, N. (2014). Contrasting the drivers of switching intent and switching behavior in contractual service settings. Journal of Retailing, 90(4), 463–480.Google Scholar
  74. Yang, X., Mao, H., & Peracchio, L. A. (2012). It's not whether you win or lose, it's how you play the game? The role of process and outcome in experience consumption. Journal of Marketing Research, 49(6), 954–966.Google Scholar
  75. Zaichkowsky, J. L. (1985). Measuring the involvement construct. Journal of Consumer Research, 12(3), 341–352.Google Scholar
  76. Zeithaml, V. A. (1981). How consumer evaluation processes differ between goods and services. In J. H. Donnelly & W. R. George (Eds.), Marketing of services (pp. 186–190). Chicago: American Marketing Association.Google Scholar
  77. Zhao, X., Lynch, J. G., Jr., & Chen, Q. (2010). Reconsidering Baron and Kenny: Myths and truths about mediation analysis. Journal of Consumer Research, 37(2), 197–206.Google Scholar
  78. Zomerdijk, L. G., & Voss, C. A. (2010). Service design for experience-centric services. Journal of Service Research, 13(1), 67–82.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Academy of Marketing Science 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christina Kuehnl
    • 1
  • Danijel Jozic
    • 2
  • Christian Homburg
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.ESB Business SchoolReutlingen UniversityReutlingenGermany
  2. 2.MainzGermany
  3. 3.University of MannheimMannheimGermany
  4. 4.University of ManchesterManchesterUK

Personalised recommendations