Prognostic value of sepsis-induced coagulation abnormalities: an early assessment in the emergency department
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To evaluate if the assessment of coagulation abnormalities at ED admission could improve prognostic assessment of septic patients. This report utilizes a portion of the data collected in a prospective study, with the aim to identify reliable biomarkers for an early sepsis diagnosis. In the period November 2011–December 2016, we enrolled 268 patients, admitted to our High-Dependency Unit with a diagnosis severe sepsis/septic shock. Study-related blood samplings were performed at ED-HDU admission (T0), after 6 h (T6) and 24 h (T24): D-dimer, thrombin–antithrombin complex (TAT) and prothrombin fragment F1 + 2 levels were analyzed. The primary end-points were day-7 and in-hospital mortality. Day-7 mortality rate was 16%. D-dimer (T0: 4661 ± 4562 µg/ml vs 3190 ± 7188 µg/ml; T6: 4498 ± 4931 µg/ml vs 2822 ± 5623 µg/ml; T24 2905 ± 2823 µg/ml vs 2465 ± 4988 µg/ml, all p < 0.05) and TAT levels (T0 29 ± 45 vs 22 ± 83; T6 21 ± 22 vs 15 ± 35; T24 16 ± 19 vs 13 ± 30, all p < 0.05) were higher among non-survivors compared to survivors. We defined an abnormal coagulation activation (COAG+) as D-dimer > 500 µg/ml and TAT > 8 ng/ml (for both, twice the upper normal value). Compared to COAG−, COAG+ patients showed higher lactate levels at the earliest evaluations (T0: 3.3 ± 2.7 vs 2.5 ± 2.3, p = 0.041; T6: 2.8 ± 3.4 vs 1.8 ± 1.6, p = 0.015); SOFA score was higher after 24 h (T24: 6.7 ± 3.1 vs 5.4 ± 2.9, p = 0.008). At T0, COAG+ patients showed a higher day-7 mortality rate (HR 2.64; 95% CI 1.14–6.11, p = 0.023), after adjustment for SOFA score and lactate level. Presence of abnormal coagulation at ED admission shows an independent association with an increased short-term mortality rate.
KeywordsSepsis Coagulation abnormalities Prognostic stratification
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Statement of human and animal rights
The study was conducted in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki at the Careggi University Hospital.
The study protocol was approved by the local Ethics Committee, and all subjects provided oral.
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