Salinity-induced changes in seed germination and the expression profile of antioxidant enzymes in peanut as early and late responses in emerging radicles

  • Koushik ChakrabortyEmail author
  • Sujit K. Bishi
  • Nisha Goswami
  • Amrit L. Singh
  • Debarati Bhaduri
  • Pratap V. Zala
Original Article


Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in developmental and signal transduction processes during seed germination and early seedling establishment stages. Higher concentrations of ROS are known to have detrimental effects when the plant is under salt stress. In the present study, we aimed to test the early (1 h) and late (48 h) response of enzyme-driven ROS detoxification system in six peanut genotypes under salt stress at early seedling stage. Salt stress was imposed with three treatment concentrations of NaCl (50, 100 and 200 mM NaCl), all of which showed a reduction in seed germination and seedling vigour index. The 200 mM NaCl stress showed severe reduction of growth, while 100 mM NaCl stress resulted in rapid increase in O 2 ·− and H2O2 contents. The O 2 ·− content increased twofold in sensitive genotypes after 1 h of stress, whereas the tolerant genotypes showed ~ 60% rise. A prompt rise (> 50-fold) in SOD transcript was occurred within 1 h of salt stress in the tolerant genotypes (early response). But induction in SOD activity was observed only after 48 h of salt stress (late response). After 48 h of salt stress, the tolerant genotypes showed greater induction of POD activity, whereas in the sensitive genotypes CAT activity was more pronounced. We found POD and CAT played a greater role in H2O2 detoxification in tolerant and sensitive genotypes, respectively, during longer duration of the stress. This study summarizes the selective induction of different components of antioxidant enzyme system and their role in cellular fine tuning of ROS level in peanut under salt stress during seedling establishment stage.


Germination Groundnut Oxidative stress Reactive oxygen species Seedling emergence Salt stress 



Ascorbate peroxidase




Germination percentage


Germination rate


Glutathione reductase


Mean germination time


Seedling vigour index




Reactive oxygen species


Superoxide dismutase


Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances



The authors gratefully acknowledge the support from Director, ICAR-DGR for the present study. We also acknowledge the technical support of Mr. CB Patel during the experiment. We acknowledge the help received from Ms. Ivanah Oliver, University of New England, Armidale (Australia) for necessary English editing.

Supplementary material

11738_2019_2927_MOESM1_ESM.docx (24 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 24 kb)


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Copyright information

© Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ICAR-Directorate of Groundnut ResearchJunagadhIndia
  2. 2.ICAR-National Rice Research InstituteCuttackIndia

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