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Salicylic acid involved in chilling-induced accumulation of calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside in Astragalus membranaceus adventitious roots

  • Junpin Liu
  • Xi Lan
  • Shuang Lv
  • Rui Bao
  • Yuan Yuan
  • Songquan WuEmail author
  • Xueli QuanEmail author
Original Article
  • 40 Downloads

Abstract

Calycosin and calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside (CG) are major isoflavonoids in Astragalus membranaceus and have multiple beneficial activities. Adventitious roots (ARs) are becoming attractive resources to obtain biologically active compounds. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important endogenous phytohormone, which is involved in the regulation of biotic and abiotic stresses. However, little is known about the potential role of SA on isoflavonoid accumulations under chilling stress. In the present study, calycosin was found to accumulate mostly in its glucosyl conjugate (CG) form in A. membranaceus ARs (AMARs). Compared to control conditions (25 °C), chilling (5 °C) induced the accumulation of CG, which was confirmed by increased expression levels of gene-encoding enzymes in the CG biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, chilling triggered the accumulation of SA prior to CG accumulation. In addition, the inhibition of SA biosynthesis with paclobutrazol (PAC) in chilling-exposed AMARs suppressed the accumulation of CG and gene expressions, while exogenous addition of SA to PAC-treated AMARs restored CG content and gene expressions. These results indicated that in AMARs, SA involved in chilling-induced CG accumulation by regulating the expression levels of genes in the CG biosynthetic pathway.

Keywords

Astragalus membranaceus Adventitious roots Calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside Gene expression Salicylic acid Chilling 

Abbreviations

4CL

4-Coumaroyl:CoA-ligase

ARs

Adventitious roots

AMARs

Astragalus membranaceus adventitious roots

BA

Benzoic acid

BA2H

Benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase

C4H

Cinnamate-4-hydroxylase

CG

Calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside

CHI

Chalcone isomerase

CHR

Chalcone reductase

CHS

Chalcone synthase

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

HPLC

High-performance liquid chromatography

I3′H

Isoflavone 3′-hydroxylase

IBA

Indole-3-butyric acid

IC

Isochorismate

IFS

Isoflavone synthase

IOMT

Isoflavone O-methyltransferase

MS

Murashige and Skoog

PAC

Paclobutrazol

PAL

Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase

pH

Hydrogenion concentration

PBS

Phosphate buffered saline

qPCR

Quantitative real-time PCR

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

rpm

Revolutions per min

SA

Salicylic acid

UCGT

UDP-glucose: calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucosyltransferase

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21462044 and 30860036).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11738_2019_2909_MOESM1_ESM.docx (91 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 90 kb)

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Copyright information

© Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Nature Resource of Changbai Mountain and Functional MolecularYanbian University, Ministry of EducationYanjiChina
  2. 2.Jilin Academy of Agricultural SciencesChangchunChina

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