Involvement of cytokinin response regulator RhRR1 in the control of flowering

  • Lin Wu
  • Ming Feng
  • Yangchao Jia
  • Honglei Li
  • Yiqing LiuEmail author
  • Yusong JiangEmail author
Original Article


Flowering at a suitable time is critical for ensuring reproductive success in the plant life cycle. The transition from vegetative growth to reproduction development is finely tuned by environmental and endogenous signals. To date, control of flowering involves five genetically defined pathways. However, the role of type-A response regulator genes in regulation of this process remains largely unclear. In the present study, we cloned and characterized a type-A response regulator gene (RhRR1) in rose. The expression of RhRR1 significantly increased in axillary bud during the transition from the vegetative growth to the start of floral differentiation, and in rose flowers in response to exogenous cytokinin or 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatments, while that expression was markedly repressed by ethylene treatment. RhRR1 has the highest degree of sequence homology to AtARR8 and AtARR9, and is localized in the nucleus. Ectopic expression RhRR1 in Arabidopsis promoted early flowering, accompanied with the less rosette leaf number at bolting, and shorter bolting time after transferring the plants into pots. In addition, the expression of flowering regulatory genes in RhRR1 transgenic Arabidopsis, including FLOWERING LOCUS D, GA REQUIRING 1, LUMINIDEPENDENS, LEAFY, and TWIN SISTER OF FT clearly increased. These results allow us to infer that RhRR1 plays a key role in the control of flowering.


Type-A response regulator gene RhRR1 Flowering Rosa hybrida 



This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (31701972), Natural Science Foundation of Chongqing Municipal Science and Technology Commission (cstc2017jcyjAX0233), the Science and Technology Research Program of Chongqing Education Commission of China (KJ1711276), the Foundation for High-Level Talents of Chongqing university of Arts and Sciences (R2016TZ04), and Chongqing Horticulture Key Discipline (CQCDXK220170828-4). In addition, we sincerely appreciated Deka Mohamed, PhD candidate from University of Toronto Scarborough, for proofreading our manuscript.

Supplementary material

11738_2019_2903_MOESM1_ESM.docx (700 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 700 kb)


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Copyright information

© Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chongqing College Garden and Flower Engineering Research Center, Chongqing Engineering Research Center for Special Plant Seedlings, Institute of Special PlantsChongqing University of Arts and SciencesYongchuanChina
  2. 2.Beijing Key Laboratory of Development and Quality Control of Ornamental Crops, Department of Ornamental HorticultureChina Agricultural UniversityBeijingChina
  3. 3.Chongqing Key Laboratory of Economic Plant BiotechnologyChongqingChina
  4. 4.Collaborative Innovation Center of Special Plant Industry in ChongqingChongqingChina

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