Acta Physiologiae Plantarum

, 40:185 | Cite as

Influence of thidiazuron on callus induction and crocin production in corm and style explants of Crocus sativus L.

  • Azar Moradi
  • Fateme ZarinkamarEmail author
  • Sofia Caretto
  • Pejman Azadi
Original Article


Crocus sativus L., mostly famous as saffron, has gained more attention due to its crocin (crocetin ester) pigment responsible for its extensive pharmaceutical properties. In this study, we established two different callus cultures from corm and style explants of saffron to find out the best explant as a suitable source for crocin production. Comparative analyses of total phenolic, flavonoid, carotenoid and anthocyanin contents were also performed in the two callus cultures. For callus induction, different combinations of MS medium with name thidiazuron (TDZ), benzylaminopurine (BA), 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) alone or in combination were tested. Of the used media, all the combinations containing TDZ and NAA gave 100% callus induction. HPLC-DAD and HPLC–ESI-MS analysis were used for identification of crocin esters in established callus cultures. The highest amount of 0.35 mg g−1 DW crocin was detected in style originated calli grown on the medium containing 3 mg L−1 NAA + 1 mg L−1 TDZ while the corm calli showed the most abundant total carotenoid (0.73 mg g−1 DW), phenolic (15.04 mg gallic acid equivalent g−1 DW) and flavonoid (0.76 mg rutin equivalent g−1 DW) contents. In general, style-derived calli showed longer time survival with a fine texture and good quality compared to corm-derived calli.


Crocus sativus L. Callus induction TDZ Crocin Total carotenoids Total phenolics 



Thanks are due to Leone D’Amico for his technical assistance in HPLC analyses.


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Copyright information

© Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Azar Moradi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Fateme Zarinkamar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sofia Caretto
    • 2
  • Pejman Azadi
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Biological ScienceTarbiat Modares UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA-CNR)LecceItaly
  3. 3.Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran (ABRII)KarajIran

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