Advertisement

Acta Physiologiae Plantarum

, 40:185 | Cite as

Influence of thidiazuron on callus induction and crocin production in corm and style explants of Crocus sativus L.

  • Azar Moradi
  • Fateme Zarinkamar
  • Sofia Caretto
  • Pejman Azadi
Original Article
  • 85 Downloads

Abstract

Crocus sativus L., mostly famous as saffron, has gained more attention due to its crocin (crocetin ester) pigment responsible for its extensive pharmaceutical properties. In this study, we established two different callus cultures from corm and style explants of saffron to find out the best explant as a suitable source for crocin production. Comparative analyses of total phenolic, flavonoid, carotenoid and anthocyanin contents were also performed in the two callus cultures. For callus induction, different combinations of MS medium with name thidiazuron (TDZ), benzylaminopurine (BA), 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) alone or in combination were tested. Of the used media, all the combinations containing TDZ and NAA gave 100% callus induction. HPLC-DAD and HPLC–ESI-MS analysis were used for identification of crocin esters in established callus cultures. The highest amount of 0.35 mg g−1 DW crocin was detected in style originated calli grown on the medium containing 3 mg L−1 NAA + 1 mg L−1 TDZ while the corm calli showed the most abundant total carotenoid (0.73 mg g−1 DW), phenolic (15.04 mg gallic acid equivalent g−1 DW) and flavonoid (0.76 mg rutin equivalent g−1 DW) contents. In general, style-derived calli showed longer time survival with a fine texture and good quality compared to corm-derived calli.

Keywords

Crocus sativus L. Callus induction TDZ Crocin Total carotenoids Total phenolics 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Thanks are due to Leone D’Amico for his technical assistance in HPLC analyses.

References

  1. Angaji SA, Mousavi A, Babapour E (2012) Antioxidants: a few key points. Ann Biol Res 3:3968–3977Google Scholar
  2. Asdaq SMB, Inamdar MN (2010) Potential of Crocus sativus (saffron) and its constituent, crocin, as hypolipidemic and antioxidant in rats. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 162:358–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Azadi P, Bagheri K, Gholami M, Mirmasoumi M, Moradi A, Sharafi A (2017) Thin cell layer, a suitable explant for in vitro regeneration of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). J Agric Sci Technol 19:1429–1435Google Scholar
  4. Baskaran P, Ncube B, Van Staden J (2012) In vitro propagation and secondary product production by Merwilla plumbea (Lindl.) Speta. J Plant Growth Regul 67:235–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bhandari PR (2015) Crocus sativus L. (saffron) for cancer chemoprevention: a mini review. J Tradit Complement Med 5:81–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carmona M, Zalacain A, Sánchez AM, Novella JL, Alonso GL (2006) Crocetin esters, picrocrocin and its related compounds present in Crocus sativus stigmas and Gardenia jasminoides fruits. Tentative identification of seven new compounds by LC–ESI-MS. J Agric Food Chem 54:973–979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen S-A, Wang X, Zhao B, Yuan X, Wang Y (2003) Production of crocin using Crocus sativus callus by two-stage culture system. Biotechnol Lett 25:1235–1238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Coste A, Vlase L, Halmagyi A, Deliu C, Coldea G (2011) Effects of plant growth regulators and elicitors on production of secondary metabolites in shoot cultures of Hypericum hirsutum and Hypericum maculatum. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 106:279–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Devi K, Sharma M, Ahuja PS (2014) Direct somatic embryogenesis with high frequency plantlet regeneration and successive cormlet production in saffron (Crocus sativus L.). S Afr J Bot 93:207–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dufresne C, Cormier F, Dorion S, Niggli UA, Pfister S, Pfander H (1999) Glycosylation of encapsulated crocetin by a Crocus sativus L. cell culture. Enzyme Microb Technol 24:453–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gismondi A, Serio M, Canuti L, Canini A (2012) Biochemical, antioxidant and antineoplastic properties of Italian saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Am J Plant Sci 3:1573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Guo B, Abbasi BH, Zeb A, Xu L, Wei Y (2011) Thidiazuron: a multi-dimensional plant growth regulator. Afr J Biotechnol 10:8984–9000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hoshyar R, Bathaie S (2007) Quantitative, HPLC analysis of monoterpene aldehydes in different sources of Iranian saffron. In: Paper presented at the 9th Iranian congress of biochemistry and the 2nd international congress of biochemistry and molecular biology. University of Shiraz, Iran, pp 29–21Google Scholar
  14. Hosseinzadeh H, Nassiri-Asl M (2013) Avicenna’s (Ibn Sina) the canon of medicine and saffron (Crocus sativus): a review. Phytother Res 27:475–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Karimi E, Oskoueian E, Hendra R, Jaafar HZ (2010) Evaluation of Crocus sativus L. stigma phenolic and flavonoid compounds and its antioxidant activity. Molecules 15:6244–6256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kawabata K, Tung NH, Shoyama Y, Sugie S, Mori T, Tanaka T (2012) Dietary crocin inhibits colitis and colitis-associated colorectal carcinogenesis in male ICR mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012:820415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Khazdair MR, Boskabady MH, Hosseini M, Rezaee R, Tsatsakis AM (2015) The effects of Crocus sativus (saffron) and its constituents on nervous system: a review. Avicenna J Phytomed 5:376PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Lichtenthaler HK (1987) Chlorophylls and carotenoids: pigments of photosynthetic biomembranes. Methods Enzymol 148:350–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mir JI, Ahmed N, Wani SH, Rashid R, Mir H, Sheikh MA (2010) In vitro development of microcorms and stigma like structures in saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Physiol Mol Biol Plants 16:369–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mok MC, Martin RC, Mok DW (2000) Cytokinins: biosynthesis metabolism and perception. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 36:102–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Namin M, Ebrahimzadeh H, Ghareyazie B, Radjabian T, Namin H (2010) Initiation and origin of stigma-like structures (SLS) on ovary and style explants of saffron in tissue culture. Acta Biol Crac Ser Bot 52:55–60Google Scholar
  22. Negbi M (1999) Saffron cultivation. Saffron: Crocus sativus L. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 1–17Google Scholar
  23. Parray JA, Kamili AN, Hamid R, Husaini AM (2012) In vitro cormlet production of saffron (Crocus sativus L. Kashmirianus) and their flowering response under greenhouse. GM Crops Food 3:289–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pinelo M, Rubilar M, Sineiro J, Nunez M (2004) Extraction of antioxidant phenolics from almond hulls (Prunus amygdalus) and pine sawdust (Pinus pinaster). Food Chem 85:267–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pourebad N, Motafakkerazad R, Kosari-Nasab M, Akhtar NF, Movafeghi A (2015) The influence of TDZ concentrations on in vitro growth and production of secondary metabolites by the shoot and callus culture of Lallemantia iberica. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Cult 122:331–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rahimi M (2015) Chemical and medicinal properties of saffron. Bull Environ Pharmacol Life Sci 4:69–81Google Scholar
  27. Ranganna S (1986) Handbook of analysis and quality control for fruit and vegetable products. Tata McGraw-Hill Edu, Publishing Co. Ltd., New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  28. Sakakibara H, Takei K, Hirose N (2006) Interactions between nitrogen and cytokinin in the regulation of metabolism and development. Trends Plant Sci 11:440–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sharifi G, Ebrahimzadeh H, Ghareyazie B, Karimi M (2010) Globular embryo-like structures and highly efficient thidiazuron-induced multiple shoot formation in saffron (Crocus sativus L.). In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 46:274–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Srivastava R, Ahmed H, Dixit R, Saraf S(2010) Crocus sativus L.: a comprehensive review. Pharmacogn Rev 4:200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Verma SK, Das AK, Cingoz GS, Uslu E, Gurel E (2016) Influence of nutrient media on callus induction, somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in selected Turkish crocus species. Biotechnol Rep 10:66–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wagner GJ (1979) Content and vacuole/extravacuole distribution of neutral sugars, free amino acids, and anthocyanin in protoplasts. Plant Physiol 64:88–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Winterhalter P, Straubinger M (2000) Saffron—renewed interest in an ancient spice. Food Rev Int 16:39–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Zhishen J, Mengcheng T, Jianming W (1999) The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chem 64:555–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Azar Moradi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Fateme Zarinkamar
    • 1
  • Sofia Caretto
    • 2
  • Pejman Azadi
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Biological ScienceTarbiat Modares UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA-CNR)LecceItaly
  3. 3.Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran (ABRII)KarajIran

Personalised recommendations