Advertisement

Acta Physiologiae Plantarum

, 40:180 | Cite as

Silicon-mediated growth and yield improvement of sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) subjected to brackish water stress

  • Syed Azhar Hussain
  • Muhammad Ansar Farooq
  • Javaid Akhtar
  • Zulfiqar Ahmad Saqib
Original Article
  • 318 Downloads

Abstract

Silicon is known to compensate crop yield losses under diverse biotic and abiotic stress conditions; however, reports about its protective role for plants exposed to brackish water stress are very limited. A pot culture experiment was conducted to assess the beneficial effect of silicon supplementation (0 and 100 mg/kg) in alleviating growth adversities of brackish water (saline, sodic, alkaline, and saline–sodic water) stress in two contrasting sunflower cultivars, SF-187 (salt tolerant), and Hysun-33 (salt sensitive) grown in greenhouse. Results demonstrated that hostile growth environments, mainly the combined stress of saline–sodic water, severely affected the physiological attributes, growth, yield, and yield contributing components in sunflower. However, the response to brackish water stress differed genotypically, with greater magnitude of damage to the Hysun-33 as compared to SF-187 genotype. It hampered plant growth due to membrane damage and reduced water uptake, but silicon supplementation minimized the negative effects of stress by limiting toxic Na+ ions uptake, improving membrane stability, and increasing relative water contents caused by higher silicon and K+ uptake that eventually led to improved biomass yield. The response was further evaluated at yield level and data regarding head diameter, achene yield, and 100 achene weight were taken. Results indicated that silicon supplementation to growth medium of saline and/or sodic water treated plants significantly enhanced the head diameter (22–30%), thus ultimately producing 15–25% higher achene yield, and weight of the biological harvest of both sunflower genotypes. Overall, the beneficial effect of silicon supplementation was more evident in Hysun-33 (salt sensitive) as compared to SF-187 (salt tolerant) genotype. Taken together, the results of this study suggest silicon fertilization as a potential strategy to increase crop productivity under brackish water stress; however, experimental trials at farmer field level should be conducted before setting any recommendations.

Keywords

Brackish water Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) Physiology Salinity Sodicity Silicon 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The financial support by Higher Education Commission (HEC), Pakistan to Syed Azhar Hussain is gratefully acknowledged. Dr. Farooq also thank HEC for financial support under startup research grant project (SRGP; Project # 1624). We are thankful to anonymous reviewers for the critical review which helped us to improve this paper.

References

  1. Akram MS, Athar H, Ashraf M (2007) Improving growth and yield of sunflower (Hellianthus annus L.) by foliar application of potassium hydroxide (KOH) under salt stress. Pak J Bot 39(3):769–776Google Scholar
  2. Ali A, Haq T, Mahmood R, Jaan M, Abbass MN (2016) Stimulating the anti-oxidative role and wheat growth improvement under salt stress. Silicon.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12633-015-9378-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bates LS, Waldren RP, Teare ID (1973) Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant Soil 39:205–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cooke J, Leishman MR (2016) Consistent alleviation of abiotic stress with silicon addition: a meta analysis. Funct Ecol 30:1340–1357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Demidchik V, Straltsova D, Medvedev SS, Pozhvanov GA, Sokolik A, Yurin V (2014) Stress-induced electrolyte leakage: the role of K+-permeable channels and involvment in programmed cell death and metabolic adjustment. J Exp Bot 65:1259–1270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Diogo RVC, Wydra K (2007) Silicon-induced basal resistance in tomato against Ralstonia solanacearum is related to modification of pectic cell wall polysaccharide structure. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 70:120–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Elliott CL, Synder GH (1991) Autoclave-Induced Digestion for the Colorimetric Determination of Silicon in Rice Straw. J Agric Food Chem 39:1118–1119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Epstein E (2009) Silicon: its manifold roles in plants. Ann Appl Biol 155:155–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Falkenmark M (2013) Growing water scarcity in agriculture: future challenge to global water scarcity. Philos Trans R Soc A 371:20120410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Farghaly FA, Radi AA, Abdel-Wahab DA, Hamada AM (2016) Effect of salinity and sodicity stresses on physiological responses and productivity in Helianthus annus.. Acta Biol Hung 67:184–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Farooq MA, Dietz KJ (2015) Silicon as versatile player in plant and human biology: overlooked and poorly understood. Front Plant Sci 6:994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Farooq MA, Saqib ZA, Akhtar J (2015a) Silicon-meidated oxidative stress tolerance and genetic variability in rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown under combined stress of salinity and boron toxicity. Turk J Agric For 39:718–729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Farooq MA, Saqib ZA, Akhtar J, Ratna-Kumar P, Dietz KJ (2015b) Protective role of silicon (Si) against combined stress of salinity and boron toxicity by improving antioxidant enzyme activity in rice. Silicon.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12633-015-9346-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Farooq MA, Detterbeck A, Clemens S, Dietz KJ (2016) Silicon-induced reversibility of cadmium toxicity in rice. J Exp Bot 67(11):3573–3585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Frew A, Weston LA, Reynolds LA, Gurr GM (2018) The role of silicon in plant biology: a paradigm shift in research approach. Ann Bot 00:1–9Google Scholar
  16. Gomez KA, Gomez AA (1984) Statistical procedures for agricultural research. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Gunes A, Inal A, Bagci EG, Coban S (2007) Silicon-mediated changes on some physiological and enzymatic parameters symptomatic of oxidative stress in barley grown in sodic-B toxic soil. J Plant Physiol 164:807–811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gunes A, Pilbeam DJ, Inal A, Coban S (2008) Influence of silicon on sunflower cultivars under drought stress, I: Growth, antioxidant mechanisms, and lipid peroxidation. Commun Soil Sci Plant Nutr 39:1885–1903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Huang Z, Zhao L, Chen D, Liang M, Liu Z, Shao H, Long X (2013) Salt stress encourages proline accumulation by regulating proline biosynthesis and degradation in Jerusalem Artichoke plantlets. PLoS One 8(4):e62085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hussain SA, Akhtar J, Haq MA, Riaz MA, Saqib ZA (2008) Ionic concentration and growth response of sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) genotypes under saline and/or sodic water application. Soil Environ 27(2):177–184Google Scholar
  21. Kaur S, Kaur N, Siddique KHM, Nayyar H (2016) Beneficial elements for agricultural crops and their functional relevance in defence against stresses. Arch Agron Soil Sci 62:905–920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Khan WUD, Aziz T, Warraich EA, Khalid M (2015) Silicon application improves germination and vegetative growth in maize grown under salt stress. Pak J Agric Sci 52:937–944Google Scholar
  23. Khan WUD, Aziz T, Maqsood MA, Ssabir M, Ahmad HR, Ramzani PMA, Nasim M (2016) Silicon: a beneficial nutrient under salt stress, its uptake mechanism and mode of action. In: Hakeem KR, Akhtar J, Sabir M (eds) Soil science: agricultural and environmental prospectives. Springer Intl. Pub, Cham, pp 287–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Khan WUD, Aziz T, Hussain I, Ramzani PMA, Reichenauer TG (2017) Silicon: a beneficial nutrient for maize crop to enhance photochemical efficiency of photosystem II under salt stress. Arch Agron Soil Sci 63:599–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Khoshgoftarmanesh AH, Khodarahmi S, Haghighi M (2014) Effect of silicon nutrition on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant response of cucumber plants exposed to salinity stress. Arch Agron Soil Sci 60:639–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kumar S, Ahmad A, Rao V, Masood A (2014) Effect of salinity on growth and leaf area of sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) cv. Suntech-85. Afr J Agric Res 9:1144–1150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Latif M, Beg A (2004) Hydrosalinity issues, challenges and options in OIC member states. In: Latif M, Mahmood S, Saeed MM (eds). In: Proceedings of the international training workshop on hydrosalinity abatement and advance techniques for sustainable irrigated agriculture, Lahore, Pakistan, pp. 1–14Google Scholar
  28. Liang YC, Zhang W, Chen Q, Liu Y, Ding R (2006) Effect of exogenous silicon (Si) on H -ATPase activity, phospholipids and fluidity of plasma membrane in leaves of salt-stressed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Environ Exp Bot 57:212–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ma JF, Yamaji N (2015) A cooperative system of silicon transport in plants. Trends Plant Sci 20(7):435–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mila AJ, Ali MH, Akanda AR, Rashid MHO, Rahman MA (2017) Effects of deficit irrigation on yield, water, productivity and economic return of sunflower. Cogent Food Agric 3:1287619Google Scholar
  31. Mohamedin AAM, Abd El-Kader AA, Badran NM (2006) Response of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) to plants salt stress under different water table depths. J Appl Sci Res 2:1175–1184Google Scholar
  32. Munns R, James RA, Lauchli A (2006) Approaches to increase the salt tolerance of wheat and other cereals. J Exp Bot 57:1025–1043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Page AL, Miller RH, Keeney DR (2009) Methods of soil analysis, 2nd edn. American Society of Agronomy, MadisonGoogle Scholar
  34. Parvaiz A, Satyawati S (2008) Salt stress and phyto-biochemical responses of plants. Plant Soil Environ 54:89–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Permachandra GS, Saneoka H, Ogata S (1989) Nutrio-physiological evaluation of polyethylene glycol test of cell membrane stability in maize. Crop Sci 29:1287–1292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ratnakumar P, Khan MIR, Minhas PS, Farooq MA, Sultana R, Per TS, Deokate PP, Khan NA, Singh Y, Rane J (2016) Can plant bioregulators minimize crop productivity losses caused by drought, heat and salinity stress. J Appl Bot Food Qual 89:113–125Google Scholar
  37. Rios JJ, Martinez-Ballesta MC, Ruiz JM, Blasco B, Carvajal M (2017) Silicon-mediated improvement in plant salinity tolerance: the role of aquaporins. Front Plant Sci 8:948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Romero-Aranda MR, Jurado O, Cuartero J (2006) Silicon alleviates the deleterious salt effect on tomato plant growth by improving plant water status. J Plant Physiol 163:47–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Russell DF, Eisensmith SP (1983) MSTAT-C. Crop Soil Sci Dept, Michigan State Univ USAGoogle Scholar
  40. Saadia M, Jamil A, Akram NA, Ashraf M (2012) A study of proline metabolism in canola (Brassica napus L.) seedlings under salt stress. Molecules 17:5803–5815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Saifullah DS, Naeem A, Iqbal M, Farooq MA, Bibi S, Rengel Z (2018) Opportunities and challenges in the use of mineral nutrition for minimizing arsenic toxicity and accumulation in rice: A critical review. Chemosphere 194:171–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sairam RK, Tayagi A (2004) Physiology and molecular biology of salinity stress tolerance in plants. Curr Sci 86:407–415Google Scholar
  43. Saqib M, Aftab M, Sharif S, Riaz A, Akhtar J, Qureshi RH (2009) Salinity and boron interaction in wheat. In: Proceedings of the international plant nutrition colloquium XVI. Davis, CA, USA: University of California Department of Plant SciencesGoogle Scholar
  44. Saud S, Li X, Shen Y, Zhang L, Fahad S, Hussain S, Sadiq A, Shen Y (2014) Silicon application increases drought tolerance of Kentucky bluegrass by improving plant water relations and morphological functions. Sci World J 2014: 368694Google Scholar
  45. Scholander PE, Hammel HT, Bradstreet ED, Hemmingsen EA (1965) Sap pressure in vascular plants. Sci 148:339–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Shabala S, Pang J, Zhou M, Shabala L, Cuin TA, Nick P, Wegner LH (2009) Electrical signaling and cytokinins mediate effects of light and root cutting onion uptake in intact plants. Plant Cell Environ 32:194–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Shi DC, Sheng YM (2005) Effect of various salt, alkaline mixed stress conditions on sunflower seedlings and analysis of their stress. Environ Exp Bot 54:8–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Shi Y, Zhang Y, Han W, Feng R, Hu Y, Guo J, Gong H (2016) Silicon enhances water stress tolerance by improving root hydraulic conductance in Solanum lycopersicum L. Front Plant Sci 7:196PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Synder GH (2001) Methods for silicon analysis in plants, soils, and fertilizers. In: Datnoff LE, Synder GH, Korndoerfer GH (eds) Silicon in agriculture. Elsevier, New York, pp 185–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tilman D, Cassman KG, Matson PA, Naylor R, Polasky S (2002) Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. Nature 418:671–677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tuna AL, Kaya C, Higgs D, Murillo-Amador B, Aydemir S, Girgin AR (2008) Silicon improves salinity tolerance in wheat plants. Environ Exp Bot 62:10–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wang S, Liu P, Chen D, Yin L, Li H, Deng X (2015) Silicon enhanced salt tolerance by improving the root water uptake and decreasing the ion toxicity in cucmber. Front Plant Sci 6:759PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Weatherley PE (1950) Studies in the water relation cotton plants, the field measurement of water deficit in leaves. New Phytol 49:81–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Yin L, Wang S, Tanaka K, Fujihara S, Itai A, Deng S, Zhang S (2015) Silicon-mediated changes in polyamines participate in silicon-induced salt tolerance in Sorghum bicolor L. Plant Cell Environ 39:245–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Saline Agriculture Research Center, Institute of Soil and Environmental SciencesUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan

Personalised recommendations