Unravelling salt stress responses in two pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) genotypes
- 92 Downloads
Pistachio tree (Pistacia vera L.) is among the tree species that are most tolerant to salinity stress. In the present investigation, we analyzed the behavior of two pistachio genotypes (Badami–e–Zarand (BZ) and Badami–e–Sefid (BS)) under different NaCl concentrations to reveal the mechanisms involved in salinity tolerance. A greater decline in several growth-related traits and biomass as well as relative water content was observed in BS seedlings than in BZ seedlings. Proline content, which is an indicator of stress, increased in both genotypes. Salinity induced oxidative stress in both genotypes, but the levels were higher for the BS genotype. The negative impact of salinity on photosynthetic process in BS was represented by a remarkable decrease in total chlorophyll and carotenoids, while the better performance of the BZ genotype under high salinity was accompanied by an increase in the activities of ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and guaiacol peroxidase. A significant increase in the superoxide dismutase activity in the leaves of BZ was observed under moderate salinity treatment. In both genotypes, Na+ content in leaf and root tissues increased progressively after salinity treatment. However, the leaves of BZ contained less Na+ and retained a lower Na+/K+ ratio. Moreover, under salinity treatment, BZ seedlings had a greater amount of NHX1 transcripts, which suggests that excess Na+ may be sequestered into root vacuoles to avoid deleterious effects of these toxic ions.
KeywordsAntioxidative enzymes Ion accumulation NHX1 Pistachio Salt tolerance
Reactive oxygen species
Ethylenediamine-N,N,N0,N0 tetraacetic acid
The authors thank Ali Ahmadi Moghadam for revising first draft of the manuscript.
- Campbell CR, Plank CO (1998) Preparation of plant tissue for laboratory analysis. In: Kalra YP (ed) Handbook of reference methods for plant analysis. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp 37–49Google Scholar
- Desingh R, Kanagaraj G (2007) Influence of salinity stress on photosynthesis and anti-oxidative systems in two cotton varieties. Gen Appl Plant Physiol 33(3–4):221–234Google Scholar
- Ferguson L, Poss JA, Grattan SR, Grieve CM, Wang D, Wilson C, Donovan TJ, Chao CT (2002) Pistachio rootstocks influence scion growth and ion relations under salinity and boron stress. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 127:194–199Google Scholar
- Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) (2008) Land and plant nutrition management service. http://www.fao.org/ag/ag1/ag11/spush/
- Gutierrez L, Bussell JD, Pacurar D, Schwambach J, Pacurar M, Bellini C (2009) Phenotypic plasticity of adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis is controlled by complex regulation of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR transcripts and microRNA abundance. Plant Cell 21:3119–3132CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Hoagland DR, Arnon DI (1950) The water culture method for growing plants without soil. Calif Agric Exp Stat Circ 347:25–32Google Scholar
- Nakano Y, Asada K (1981) Hydrogen peroxide is scavenged by ascorbate specific peroxidase in spinach chloroplast. Plant Cell Physiol 22:867–880Google Scholar
- Nooghi FH, Mozafari V (2012) Effects of calcium on eliminating the negative effects of salinity in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) seedling. Aust J Crop Sci 6(4):711–716Google Scholar